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Title: Indirect calorimetry directed feeding and cycling in the older ICU population: a pilot randomised controlled trial
Authors: Elizabeth, Ng Shu Hui
Yanni, Tan
May, Leong Siaw 
Fen, Tiong Hui
Janice, Li Xuanhui
Peijun, Kwan
Pheng, Ong Sze
Jie, Toh Shi 
Will, Loh Ne Hooi
Issue Date: 7-May-2024
Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Citation: Elizabeth, Ng Shu Hui, Yanni, Tan, May, Leong Siaw, Fen, Tiong Hui, Janice, Li Xuanhui, Peijun, Kwan, Pheng, Ong Sze, Jie, Toh Shi, Will, Loh Ne Hooi (2024-05-07). Indirect calorimetry directed feeding and cycling in the older ICU population: a pilot randomised controlled trial. BMC Anesthesiology 24 (1). ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Abstract Background Older critically ill patients experience rapid muscle loss during stay in an intensive care unit (ICU) due to physiological stress and increased catabolism. This may lead to increased ICU length of stay, delayed weaning from ventilation and persistent functional limitations. We hypothesized that with optimal nutrition and early physical therapy acting in synergism, we can reduce muscle mass loss and improve functional outcomes. Methods This was a prospective, single blinded randomized, controlled single-center pilot study to compare the lean muscle mass (measured at bilateral quadriceps femoris using ultrasound) of older ICU patients at 4 time points over 14 days between the control and intervention groups. The control group received standard weight-based empiric feeding and standard ICU physiotherapy. The intervention group received indirect calorimetry directed feeding adjusted daily and 60 min per day of cycle ergometry. 21 patients were recruited and randomized with 11 patients in the control arm and 10 patients in the intervention arm. Secondary outcome measures included ICU and hospital mortality, length of stay, functional assessments of mobility and assessment of strength. Results Median age was 64 in the control group and 66 in the intervention group. Median calories achieved was 24.5 kcal/kg per day in the control group and 23.3 kcal/kg per day in the intervention group. Cycle ergometry was applied to patients in the intervention group for a median of 60 min a day and a patient had a median of 8.5 sessions in 14 days. Muscle mass decreased by a median of 4.7cm2 in the right quadriceps femoris in the control group and 1.8cm2 in the intervention group (p = 0.19), while the left quadriceps femoris decreased by 1.9cm2 in the control group and 0.1cm2 in the intervention group (p = 0.51). Conclusion In this pilot study, we found a trend towards decrease muscle loss in bilateral quadriceps femoris with our combined interventions. However, it did not reach statistical significance likely due to small number of patients recruited in the study. However, we conclude that the intervention is feasible and potentially beneficial and may warrant a larger scale study to achieve statistical significance. Trial Registration This study was registered on on 30th May 2018 with identifier NCT03540732.
Source Title: BMC Anesthesiology
ISSN: 1471-2253
DOI: 10.1186/s12871-024-02507-8
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