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Title: Gonadal and adrenal hormones interact with pubertal maturation to predict depressive symptoms in a group of high-school females
Authors: Chafkin, Julia E
Yeager, David S
O'Brien, Joseph M
Lee, Hae Yeon 
McAfee, Ciara A
Josephs, Robert A
Keywords: adolescence
developmental endocrinology
pubertal development
Issue Date: Aug-2022
Publisher: Cambridge University Press (CUP)
Citation: Chafkin, Julia E, Yeager, David S, O'Brien, Joseph M, Lee, Hae Yeon, McAfee, Ciara A, Josephs, Robert A (2022-08). Gonadal and adrenal hormones interact with pubertal maturation to predict depressive symptoms in a group of high-school females. Development and Psychopathology 34 (3) : 1064-1078. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Adolescent females are at elevated risk for the development of depression. In this study, we addressed two questions: Are pubertal hormones associated with adolescent mental health? Might this association depend on pubertal development? We tested the hypothesis that estradiol, which has been associated with adolescent social sensitivity, might interact with pubertal stage to predict depression risk at three time points in ninth and tenth grade. Hormones and pubertal development were measured ninth-grade females. Linear regression analyses were used to predict fall ninthgrade (N = 79), spring ninth-grade (N = 76), and spring tenth-grade (N = 67) Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI) scores. The hypothesized model was not statistically significant, but exploratory analyses revealed that two- and three-way interactions incorporating estradiol, puberty (stage and perceived onset), and cortisol predicted current and future CDI scores. Our exploratory model did not predict changes in CDI but did account for future (spring of ninth grade) CDI scores. Specifically, estradiol was positively correlated with fall and spring ninth-grade depressive symptoms in participants with high cortisol who also reported earlier stages and later perceived onset of pubertal development. These findings suggest that hormones associated with sensitivity to the social environment deserve consideration in models of adolescent depression risk.
Source Title: Development and Psychopathology
ISSN: 0954-5794
DOI: 10.1017/s0954579420001935
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