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Title: Confinement and other psychosocial factors in perinatal depression: A transcultural study in Singapore
Authors: Chee, C.Y.I. 
Lee, D.T.S.
Chong, Y.S. 
Tan, L.K.
Ng, T.P. 
Fones, C.S.L. 
Keywords: Confinement
Social support
Issue Date: 2005
Citation: Chee, C.Y.I., Lee, D.T.S., Chong, Y.S., Tan, L.K., Ng, T.P., Fones, C.S.L. (2005). Confinement and other psychosocial factors in perinatal depression: A transcultural study in Singapore. Journal of Affective Disorders 89 (1-3) : 157-166. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Background: To investigate the prevalence, socio-cultural and psychosocial risk factors for perinatal depression in Singaporean women. Method: A prospective cohort of 559 women was interviewed antenatally and at six weeks' postpartum at a tertiary hospital. Women were interviewed for diagnosis of depression using a two-stage design, with a screening questionnaire and diagnostic interview. Results: Postnatally, a negative confinement experience was associated with depression. Other independent factors included poor emotional support, a past history of depression, unplanned pregnancy and perceived potential conflicts with relatives over childcare antenatally and dissatisfaction, poor instrumental support postnatally. The prevalence of depression antenatally and postnatally was 12.2% and 6.8%, respectively. Limitations: Measures of satisfaction with social support were based on self-report; there were high dropout rates at six weeks' postpartum; and other modulating social factors such as pre-existing interpersonal conflicts were not studied. Conclusions: Perinatal depression in Singaporean women is common. Contrary to expectations, a negative 'confinement' experience is a significant risk factor for postnatal depression, and is not universally welcomed by women. Depression is modulated by dissimilar sets of psychosocial factors antenatally and postnatally. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Source Title: Journal of Affective Disorders
ISSN: 01650327
DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2005.09.004
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