Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(21)01169-7
Title: Spatial, temporal, and demographic patterns in prevalence of smoking tobacco use and attributable disease burden in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019
Authors: Reitsma, Marissa B.
Kendrick, Parkes J.
Ababneh, Emad
Abbafati, Cristiana
Abbasi-Kangevari, Mohsen
Abdoli, Amir
Abedi, Aidin
Abhilash, E. S.
Abila, Derrick Bary
Aboyans, Victor
Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.
Adebayo, Oladimeji M.
Advani, Shailesh M.
Aghaali, Mohammad
Ahinkorah, Bright Opoku
Ahmad, Sohail
Ahmadi, Keivan
Ahmed, Haroon
Aji, Budi
Akunna, Chisom Joyqueenet
Al-Aly, Ziyad
Alanzi, Turki M.
Alhabib, Khalid F.
Ali, Liaqat
Alif, Sheikh Mohammad
Alipour, Vahid
Aljunid, Syed Mohamed
Alla, Francois
Allebeck, Peter
Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
Amin, Tarek Tawfik
Amini, Saeed
Amu, Hubert
Amul, Gianna Gayle Herrera
Ancuceanu, Robert
Anderson, Jason A.
Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza
Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.
Antony, Benny
Anvari, Davood
Arabloo, Jalal
Arian, Nicholas D.
Arora, Monika
Asaad, Malke
Ausloos, Marcel
Awan, Asma Tahir
Ayano, Getinet
Aynalem, Getie Lake
Azari, Samad
B, D.B.
Badiye, Ashish D.
Baig, Atif Amin
Bakhshaei, Mohammad Hossein
Banach, Maciej
Banik, Palash Chandra
Barker-Collo, Suzanne Lyn
Bärnighausen, T.W.
Barqawi, Hiba Jawdat
Basu, Sanjay
Bayati, Mohsen
Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad
Behzadifar, Masoud
Bekuma, Tariku Tesfaye
Bennett, Derrick A.
Bensenor, Isabela M.
Berfield, Kathleen S. Sachiko
Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth
Bhardwaj, Nikha
Bhardwaj, Pankaj
Bhattacharyya, Krittika
Bibi, Sadia
Bijani, Ali
Bintoro, Bagas Suryo
Biondi, Antonio
Birara, Setognal
Braithwaite, Dejana
Brenner, Hermann
Brunoni, Andre R.
Burkart, Katrin
Butt, Zahid A.
Caetano dos Santos, F.L.Institute of Microengineering, Al Shifa Trust Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
Cámera, L.A.
Car, Josip
Cárdenas, R.
Carreras, Giulia
Carrero, Juan J.
Castaldelli-Maia, Joao Mauricio
Cattaruzza, Maria Sofia Sofia
Chang, Jung-Chen
Chen, Simiao
Chu, Dinh-Toi
Chung, Sheng-Chia
Cirillo, Massimo
Costa, Vera Marisa
Couto, Rosa A. S.
Dadras, Omid
Dai, Xiaochen
Damasceno, Albertino Antonio Moura
Damiani, Giovanni
Dandona, Lalit
Dandona, Rakhi
Daneshpajouhnejad, Parnaz
Darega Gela, J.Department of Public Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
Davletov, Kairat
Derbew Molla, M.Department of Biochemistry.
Dessie, Getenet Ayalew
Desta, Abebaw Alemayehu
Dharmaratne, Samath Dhamminda
Dianatinasab, Mostafa
Diaz, Daniel
Hoa Thi Do
Douiri, Abdel
Duncan, Bruce B.
Duraes, Andre Rodrigues
Eagan, Arielle Wilder
Ebrahimi Kalan, M.Department of Epidemiology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, United States.
Edvardsson, Kristina
Elbarazi, Iffat
El Tantawi, Maha
Esmaeilnejad, Saman
Fadhil, Ibtihal
Faraon, Emerito Jose A.
Farinha, Carla Sofia e Sa
Farwati, Medhat
Farzadfar, Farshad
Fazlzadeh, Mehdi
Feigin, Valery L.
Feldman, Rachel
Fernandez Prendes, C.Vascular Surgery Deparment, Vascular Surgery Department, Ludwig Maximilians University, München, Germany.
Ferrara, Pietro
Filip, Irina
Filippidis, Filippos
Fischer, Florian
Flor, Luisa Sorio
Foigt, Nataliya A.
Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin
Foroutan, Masoud
Gad, Mohamed M.
Gaidhane, Abhay Motiramji
Gallus, Silvano
Geberemariyam, Biniyam Sahiledengle
Ghafourifard, Mansour
Ghajar, Alireza
Ghashghaee, Ahmad
Giampaoli, Simona
Gill, Paramjit Singh
Glozah, Franklin N.
Gnedovskaya, Elena V.
Golechha, Mahaveer
Gopalani, Sameer Vali
Gorini, Giuseppe
Goudarzi, Houman
Goulart, Alessandra C.
Greaves, Felix
Guha, Avirup
Guo, Yuming
Gupta, Bhawna
Gupta, Rajeev
Gupta, Rajeev
Gupta, Tarun
Gupta, Vin
Hafezi-Nejad, Nima
Haider, Mohammad Rifat
Hamadeh, Randah R.
Hankey, Graeme J.
Hargono, Arief
Hartono, Risky Kusuma
Hassankhani, Hadi
Hay, Simon I.
Heidari, Golnaz
Herteliu, Claudiu
Hezam, Kamal
Hird, Thomas R.
Hole, Michael K.
Holla, Ramesh
Hosseinzadeh, Mehdi
Hostiuc, Sorin
Househ, Mowafa
Hsiao, Thomas
Huang, Junjie
Iannucci, Vincent C.
Ibitoye, Segun Emmanuel
Idrisov, Bulat
Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen
Ilic, Irena M.
Ilic, Milena D.
Inbaraj, Leeberk Raja
Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi
Islam, Jessica Y.
Islam, Rakibul M.
Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful
Islami, Farhad
Iso, Hiroyasu
Itumalla, Ramaiah
Iwagami, Masao
Jaafari, Jalil
Jain, Vardhmaan
Jakovljevic, Mihajlo
Jang, Sung-In
Janjani, Hosna
Jayaram, Shubha
Jeemon, Panniyammakal
Jha, Ravi Prakash
Jonas, Jost B.
Joo, Tamas
Jürisson, M.Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.
Kabir, Ali
Kabir, Zubair
Kalankesh, Leila R.
Kanchan, Tanuj
Kandel, Himal
Kapoor, Neeti
Karimi, Salah Eddin
Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal
Kebede, Hafte Kahsay
Kelkay, Bayew
Kennedy, Ryan David
Khoja, Abdullah T.
Khubchandani, Jagdish
Kim, Gyu Ri
Kim, Young-Eun
Kimokoti, Ruth W.
Kivimäki, M.
Kosen, Soewarta
Koulmane Laxminarayana, S.L.
Koyanagi, Ai
Krishan, Kewal
Kugbey, Nuworza
Kumar, G. Anil
Kumar, Nithin
Kurmi, Om P.
Kusuma, Dian
Lacey, Ben
Lam, Jennifer O.
Landires, Ivan
Lasrado, Savita
Lauriola, Paolo
Lee, Doo Woong
Lee, Yo Han
Leung, Janni
Li, Shanshan
Lin, Hualiang
Linn, Shai
Liu, Wei
Lopez, Alan D.
Lopukhov, Platon D.
Lorkowski, Stefan
Lugo, Alessandra
Majeed, Azeem
Maleki, Afshin
Malekzadeh, Reza
Malta, Deborah Carvalho
Mamun, Abdullah A.
Manjunatha, Narayana
Mansouri, Borhan
Mansournia, Mohammad Ali
Martinez-Raga, Jose
Martini, Santi
Mathur, Manu Raj
Medina-Solís, C.E.
Mehata, Suresh
Mendoza, Walter
Menezes, Ritesh G.
Meretoja, Atte
Meretoja, Tuomo J.
Miazgowski, Bartosz
Michalek, Irmina Maria
Miller, Ted R.
Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.
Mirzaei, Hamed
Mirzaei-Alavijeh, Mehdi
Misra, Sanjeev
Moghadaszadeh, Masoud
Mohammad, Yousef
Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah
Mohammed, Shafiu
Mokdad, Ali H.
Monasta, Lorenzo
Moni, Mohammad Ali
Moradi, Ghobad
Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar
Moradzadeh, Rahmatollah
Morrison, Shane Douglas
Mossie, Tilahun Belete
Mubarik, Sumaira
Mullany, Erin C.
Murray, Christopher J. L.
Naghavi, Mohsen
Naghshtabrizi, Behshad
Nair, Sanjeev
Nalini, Mahdi
Nangia, Vinay
Naqvi, Atta Abbas
Narasimha Swamy, S.Mysore Medical College and Research Institute, University of Science, Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia.
Naveed, Muhammad
Nayak, Smitha
Nayak, Vinod C.
Nazari, Javad
Nduaguba, Sabina O.
Cuong Tat Nguyen
Huong Lan Thi Nguyen
Son Hoang Nguyen
Trang Huyen Nguyen
Nixon, Molly R.
Nnaji, Chukwudi A.
Norrving, Bo
Noubiap, Jean Jacques
Nowak, Christoph
Ogbo, Felix Akpojene
Oguntade, Ayodipupo Sikiru
Oh, In-Hwan
Olagunju, Andrew T.
Oren, Eyal
Otstavnov, Nikita
Otstavnov, Stanislav S.
Owolabi, Mayowa O.
P A, M.
Pakhale, S.
Pakshir, Keyvan
Palladino, Raffaele
Pana, Adrian
Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra
Pandey, Ashok
Parekh, Utsav
Park, Eun-Cheol
Park, Eun-Kee
Pashazadeh Kan, F.Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Patton, George C.
Pawar, Shrikant
Pestell, Richard G.
Pinheiro, Marina
Piradov, Michael A.
Pirouzpanah, Saeed
Pokhrel, Khem Narayan
Polibin, Roman V.
Prashant, Akila
Pribadi, Dimas Ria Angga
Radfar, Amir
Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa
Rahman, Azizur
Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur
Rahman, Muhammad Aziz
Rahmani, Amir Masoud
Rajai, Nazanin
Ram, Pradhum
Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal
Rathi, Priya
Rawal, Lal
Renzaho, Andre M. N.
Myriam Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz
Rezapour, Aziz
Riahi, Seyed Mohammad
Riaz, Mavra A.
Roever, Leonardo
Ronfani, Luca
Roshandel, Gholamreza
Roy, Ambuj
Roy, Bedanta
Sacco, Simona
Saddik, Basema
Sahebkar, Amirhossein
Salehi, Sana
Salimzadeh, Hamideh
Samaei, Mehrnoosh
Samy, Abdallah M.
Santos, Itamar S.
Santric-Milicevic, Milena M.
Sarrafzadegan, Nizal
Sathian, Brijesh
Sawhney, Monika
Saylan, Mete
Schaub, Michael P.
Schmidt, Maria Ines
Ceola Schneider, Ione Jayce
Schutte, Aletta Elisabeth
Schwendicke, Falk
Seidu, Abdul-Aziz
Senthil Kumar, N.
Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
Seylani, Allen
Shafaat, Omid
Shah, Syed Mahboob
Shaikh, Masood Ali
Shalash, Ali S.
Shannawaz, Mohammed
Sharafi, Kiomars
Sheikh, Aziz
Sheikhbahaei, Sara
Shigematsu, Mika
Shiri, Rahman
Shishani, Kawkab
Shivakumar, K. M.
Shivalli, Siddharudha
Shrestha, Roman
Siabani, Soraya
Sidemo, Negussie Boti
Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora
Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig
Santos Silva, Diego Augusto
Silva, Joao Pedro
Singh, Ambrish
Singh, Jasvinder A.
Singh, Virendra
Sinha, Dhirendra Narain
Sitas, Freddy
Skryabin, Valentin Yurievich
Skryabina, Anna Aleksandrovna
Soboka, Matiwos
Soriano, Joan B.
Soroush, Ali
Soshnikov, Sergey
Soyiri, Ireneous N.
Spurlock, Emma Elizabeth
Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.
Stein, Dan J.
Steiropoulos, Paschalis
Stortecky, Stefan
Straif, Kurt
Suliankatchi Abdulkader, R.Department of Statistics, National Institute of Epidemiology, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Abishekapatti, India.
Sulo, Gerhard
Sundström, J.
Tabuchi, Takahiro
Tadakamadla, Santosh Kumar
Taddele, Biruk Wogayehu
Tadesse, Eyayou Girma
Tamiru, Animut Tagele
Tareke, Minale
Tareque, Md Ismail
Tarigan, Ingan Ukur
Temsah, Mohamad-Hani
Thankappan, Kavumpurathu Raman
Thapar, Rekha
Tichopad, Ales
Tolani, Musliu Adetola
Topouzis, Fotis
Tovani-Palone, Marcos Roberto
Bach Xuan Tran
Tripathy, Jaya Prasad
Tsegaye, Gebiyaw Wudie
Tsilimparis, Nikolaos
Tymeson, Hayley D.
Ullah, Anayat
Ullah, Saif
Unim, Brigid
Updike, Rachel L.
Vacante, Marco
Valdez, Pascual R.
Vardavas, Constantine
Varona Pérez, P.Epidemiology Department, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece.
Vasankari, Tommi Juhani
Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy
Verma, Madhur
Vetrova, Marina V.
Bay Vo
Giang Thu Vu
Waheed, Yasir
Wang, Yanzhong
Welding, Kevin
Werdecker, Andrea
Whisnant, Joanna L.
Wickramasinghe, Nuwan Darshana
Yamagishi, Kazumasa
Yandrapalli, Srikanth
Yatsuya, Hiroshi
Yazdi-Feyzabadi, Vahid
Yeshaw, Yigizie
Yimmer, Mohammed Zewdu
Yonemoto, Naohiro
Yu, Chuanhua
Yunusa, Ismaeel
Yusefzadeh, Hasan
Zahirian Moghadam, T.Social Determinants of Health Research Center.
Zaman, Muhammed Shahriar
Zamanian, Maryam
Zandian, Hamed
Zar, Heather J.
Zastrozhin, Mikhail Sergeevich
Zastrozhina, Anasthasia
Zavala-Arciniega, Luis
Zhang, Jianrong
Zhang, Zhi-Jiang
Zhong, Chenwen
Zuniga, Yves Miel H.
Gakidou, Emmanuela
Reitsma, Marissa B.
Kendrick, Parkes J.
Anderson, Jason A.
Arian, Nicholas D.
Burkart, Katrin
Dai, Xiaochen
Dandona, Lalit
Dandona, Rakhi
Dharmaratne, Samath Dhamminda
Feigin, Valery L.
Feldman, Rachel
Gupta, Vin
Hay, Simon I.
Hsiao, Thomas
Iannucci, Vincent C.
Mokdad, Ali H.
Mullany, Erin C.
Murray, Christopher J. L.
Naghavi, Mohsen
Nixon, Molly R.
Spurlock, Emma Elizabeth
Tymeson, Hayley D.
Updike, Rachel L.
Whisnant, Joanna L.
Gakidou, Emmanuela
Berfield, Kathleen S. Sachiko
Burkart, Katrin
Dandona, Rakhi
Dharmaratne, Samath Dhamminda
Gupta, Vin
Hay, Simon I.
Mokdad, Ali H.
Murray, Christopher J. L.
Naghavi, Mohsen
Gakidou, Emmanuela
Oren, Eyal
Farwati, Medhat
Gad, Mohamed M.
Jain, Vardhmaan
Cattaruzza, Maria Sofia Sofia
Salehi, Sana
Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen
Oguntade, Ayodipupo Sikiru
Owolabi, Mayowa O.
Siabani, Soraya
Menezes, Ritesh G.
Naqvi, Atta Abbas
Mohammad, Yousef
Ullah, Anayat
Alif, Sheikh Mohammad
Guo, Yuming
Islam, Rakibul M.
Li, Shanshan
Arabloo, Jalal
Azari, Samad
Ghashghaee, Ahmad
Hosseinzadeh, Mehdi
Rezapour, Aziz
Ghashghaee, Ahmad
Pashazadeh Kan, F.Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Aljunid, Syed Mohamed
Aljunid, Syed Mohamed
Alla, Francois
Allebeck, Peter
Carrero, Juan J.
Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
Amin, Tarek Tawfik
Amini, Saeed
Moradzadeh, Rahmatollah
Zamanian, Maryam
Nazari, Javad
Amu, Hubert
Amul, Gianna Gayle Herrera
Amul, Gianna Gayle Herrera
Ancuceanu, Robert
Hostiuc, Sorin
Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.
Faraon, Emerito Jose A.
Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.
Antony, Benny
Singh, Ambrish
Anvari, Davood
Anvari, Davood
Arora, Monika
Mathur, Manu Raj
Dandona, Lalit
Dandona, Rakhi
Kumar, G. Anil
Arora, Monika
Asaad, Malke
Ausloos, Marcel
Ausloos, Marcel
Herteliu, Claudiu
Pana, Adrian
Awan, Asma Tahir
Awan, Asma Tahir
Ayano, Getinet
Aynalem, Getie Lake
Derbew Molla, M.Department of Biochemistry.
Desta, Abebaw Alemayehu
Kelkay, Bayew
Tamiru, Animut Tagele
Yeshaw, Yigizie
Rathi, Priya
Badiye, Ashish D.
Baig, Atif Amin
Riaz Mcom, M.A.
Bakhshaei, Mohammad Hossein
Naghshtabrizi, Behshad
Bärnighausen, T.W.
Chen, Simiao
Mohammed, Shafiu
Jonas, Jost B.
Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra
Bärnighausen, T.W.
Basu, Sanjay
Eagan, Arielle Wilder
Rajai, Nazanin
Sheikh, Aziz
Saddik, Basema
Basu, Sanjay
Filippidis, Filippos
Car, Josip
Greaves, Felix
Majeed, Azeem
Palladino, Raffaele
Kusuma, Dian
Pakshir, Keyvan
Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad
Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad
Behzadifar, Masoud
Bennett, Derrick A.
Lacey, Ben
Bensenor, Isabela M.
Brunoni, Andre R.
Goulart, Alessandra C.
Santos, Itamar S.
Brunoni, Andre R.
Goulart, Alessandra C.
Santos, Itamar S.
Berfield, Kathleen S. Sachiko
Elbarazi, Iffat
Shah, Syed Mahboob
Bhardwaj, Nikha
Kanchan, Tanuj
Misra, Sanjeev
Bhattacharyya, Krittika
Bhattacharyya, Krittika
Bibi, Sadia
Ullah, Saif
Biondi, Antonio
Vacante, Marco
Birara, Setognal
Braithwaite, Dejana
Nduaguba, Sabina O.
Braithwaite, Dejana
Brenner, Hermann
Butt, Zahid A.
Butt, Zahid A.
Cámera, L.A.
Cámera, L.A.
Valdez, Pascual R.
Car, Josip
Cárdenas, R.
Gorini, Giuseppe
Carreras, Giulia
Chang, Jung-Chen
Chang, Jung-Chen
Chu, Dinh-Toi
Chung, Sheng-Chia
Kivimäki, M.
Oguntade, Ayodipupo Sikiru
Chung, Sheng-Chia
Cirillo, Massimo
Palladino, Raffaele
Costa, Vera Marisa
Silva, Joao Pedro
Couto, Rosa A. S.
Pinheiro, Marina
Damasceno, Albertino Antonio Moura
Damiani, Giovanni
Damiani, Giovanni
Guha, Avirup
Dandona, Lalit
Dandona, Lalit
Daneshpajouhnejad, Parnaz
Shafaat, Omid
Darega Gela, J.Department of Public Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
Davletov, Kairat
Dessie, Getenet Ayalew
Tsegaye, Gebiyaw Wudie
Dharmaratne, Samath Dhamminda
Mossie, Tilahun Belete
Tareke, Minale
Hoa Thi Do
Hoa Thi Do
Douiri, Abdel
Wang, Yanzhong
Duncan, Bruce B.
Schmidt, Maria Ines
Duraes, Andre Rodrigues
Duraes, Andre Rodrigues
Eagan, Arielle Wilder
Ebrahimi Kalan, M.Department of Epidemiology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, United States.
Esmaeilnejad, Saman
Esmaeilnejad, Saman
Fadhil, Ibtihal
Farinha, Carla Sofia e Sa
Farwati, Medhat
Janjani, Hosna
Hafezi-Nejad, Nima
Nalini, Mahdi
Salimzadeh, Hamideh
Zahirian Moghadam, T.Social Determinants of Health Research Center.
Zandian, Hamed
Feigin, Valery L.
Gnedovskaya, Elena V.
Feigin, Valery L.
Mansournia, Mohammad Ali
Fernandez Prendes, C.Vascular Surgery Deparment, Vascular Surgery Department, Ludwig Maximilians University, München, Germany.
Fernandez Prendes, C.Vascular Surgery Deparment, Vascular Surgery Department, Ludwig Maximilians University, München, Germany.
Sundström, J.
Zandian, Hamed
Filip, Irina
Filip, Irina
Fischer, Florian
Flor, Luisa Sorio
Flor, Luisa Sorio
Flor, Luisa Sorio
Foigt, Nataliya A.
Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin
Gad, Mohamed M.
Gaidhane, Abhay Motiramji
Gad, Mohamed M.
Gaidhane, Abhay Motiramji
Lugo, Alessandra
Geberemariyam, Biniyam Sahiledengle
Islam, Jessica Y.
Hassankhani, Hadi
Kalankesh, Leila R.
Karimi, Salah Eddin
Moghadaszadeh, Masoud
Moghadaszadeh, Masoud
Pirouzpanah, Saeed
Ghajar, Alireza
Giampaoli, Simona
Gill, Paramjit Singh
Glozah, Franklin N.
Golechha, Mahaveer
Gopalani, Sameer Vali
Gopalani, Sameer Vali
Goudarzi, Houman
Goudarzi, Houman
Greaves, Felix
Guha, Avirup
Guo, Yuming
Gupta, Bhawna
Gupta, Rajeev
Gupta, Rajeev
Gupta, Rajeev
Gupta, Rajeev
Gupta, Tarun
Hafezi-Nejad, Nima
Shafaat, Omid
Sheikhbahaei, Sara
Welding, Kevin
Haider, Mohammad Rifat
Hankey, Graeme J.
Hankey, Graeme J.
Hargono Dr, A.
Martini, Santi
Hartono, Risky Kusuma
Hassankhani, Hadi
Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi
Hassankhani, Hadi
Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi
Heidari, Golnaz
Herteliu, Claudiu
Hezam, Kamal
Hezam, Kamal
Hird, Thomas R.
Hole, Michael K.
Hostiuc, Sorin
Huang, Junjie
Zhong, Chenwen
Ibitoye, Segun Emmanuel
Idrisov, Bulat
Idrisov, Bulat
Ilic, Irena M.
Santric-Milicevic, Milena M.
Santric-Milicevic, Milena M.
Ilic, Milena D.
Jakovljevic, Mihajlo
Inbaraj, Leeberk Raja
Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful
Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful
Sitas, Freddy
Islami, Farhad
Iso, Hiroyasu
Itumalla, Ramaiah
Iwagami, Masao
Iwagami, Masao
Shivalli, Siddharudha
Jaafari, Jalil
Jakovljevic, Mihajlo
Jang, Sung-In
Mansouri, Borhan
Mirzaei-Alavijeh, Mehdi
Nalini, Mahdi
Siabani, Soraya
Janjani, Hosna
Jeemon, Panniyammakal
Jonas, Jost B.
Joo, Tamas
Jürisson, M.Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.
Jayaram, Shubha
Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal
Kebede, Hafte Kahsay
Kennedy, Ryan David
Khubchandani, Jagdish
Kim, Gyu Ri
Park, Eun-Cheol
Lee, Doo Woong
Park, Eun-Cheol
Kim, Young-Eun
Soboka, Matiwos
Kivimäki, M.
Meretoja, Tuomo J.
Kosen, Soewarta
Koulmane Laxminarayana, S.
Koyanagi, Ai
Lee, Doo Woong
Krishan, Kewal
Kugbey, Nuworza
Olagunju, Andrew T.
Kusuma, Dian
Lacey, Ben
Lam, Jennifer O.
Landires, Ivan
Landires, Ivan
Landires, Ivan
Lasrado, Savita
Kumar, Nachimuthu Senthil
Thapar, Rekha
Lin, Hualiang
Linn, Shai
Liu, Wei
Meretoja, Atte
Zhang, Jianrong
Lopukhov, Platon D.
Polibin, Roman V.
Lorkowski, Stefan
Lorkowski, Stefan
Moradi, Ghobad
Moradi, Ghobad
Malta, Deborah Carvalho
Manjunatha, Narayana
Patton, George C.
Martini, Santi
Mathur, Manu Raj
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Issue Date: 1-Jun-2021
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
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(2021-06-01). Spatial, temporal, and demographic patterns in prevalence of smoking tobacco use and attributable disease burden in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. The Lancet 397 (10292) : 2337-2360. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(21)01169-7
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
Abstract: Background: Ending the global tobacco epidemic is a defining challenge in global health. Timely and comprehensive estimates of the prevalence of smoking tobacco use and attributable disease burden are needed to guide tobacco control efforts nationally and globally. Methods: We estimated the prevalence of smoking tobacco use and attributable disease burden for 204 countries and territories, by age and sex, from 1990 to 2019 as part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study. We modelled multiple smoking-related indicators from 3625 nationally representative surveys. We completed systematic reviews and did Bayesian meta-regressions for 36 causally linked health outcomes to estimate non-linear dose-response risk curves for current and former smokers. We used a direct estimation approach to estimate attributable burden, providing more comprehensive estimates of the health effects of smoking than previously available. Findings: Globally in 2019, 1·14 billion (95% uncertainty interval 1·13–1·16) individuals were current smokers, who consumed 7·41 trillion (7·11–7·74) cigarette-equivalents of tobacco in 2019. Although prevalence of smoking had decreased significantly since 1990 among both males (27·5% [26·5–28·5] reduction) and females (37·7% [35·4–39·9] reduction) aged 15 years and older, population growth has led to a significant increase in the total number of smokers from 0·99 billion (0·98–1·00) in 1990. Globally in 2019, smoking tobacco use accounted for 7·69 million (7·16–8·20) deaths and 200 million (185–214) disability-adjusted life-years, and was the leading risk factor for death among males (20·2% [19·3–21·1] of male deaths). 6·68 million [86·9%] of 7·69 million deaths attributable to smoking tobacco use were among current smokers. Interpretation: In the absence of intervention, the annual toll of 7·69 million deaths and 200 million disability-adjusted life-years attributable to smoking will increase over the coming decades. Substantial progress in reducing the prevalence of smoking tobacco use has been observed in countries from all regions and at all stages of development, but a large implementation gap remains for tobacco control. Countries have a clear and urgent opportunity to pass strong, evidence-based policies to accelerate reductions in the prevalence of smoking and reap massive health benefits for their citizens. Funding: Bloomberg Philanthropies and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license
Source Title: The Lancet
URI: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/233506
ISSN: 0140-6736
DOI: 10.1016/s0140-6736(21)01169-7
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
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