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Title: Rapid Detection and Quantification of Plant Innate Immunity Response Using Raman Spectroscopy
Authors: Chung, Pil Joong
Singh, Gajendra P.
Huang, Chung-Hao
Koyyappurath, Sayuj
Seo, Jun Sung
Mao, Hui-Zhu
Diloknawarit, Piyarut
Ram, Rajeev J.
Sarojam, Rajani
Chua, Nam-Hai 
Keywords: Arabidopsis
pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)
plant innate immunity (PTI)
Raman spectroscopy
Issue Date: 21-Oct-2021
Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
Citation: Chung, Pil Joong, Singh, Gajendra P., Huang, Chung-Hao, Koyyappurath, Sayuj, Seo, Jun Sung, Mao, Hui-Zhu, Diloknawarit, Piyarut, Ram, Rajeev J., Sarojam, Rajani, Chua, Nam-Hai (2021-10-21). Rapid Detection and Quantification of Plant Innate Immunity Response Using Raman Spectroscopy. Frontiers in Plant Science 12 : 746586. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
Abstract: We have developed a rapid Raman spectroscopy-based method for the detection and quantification of early innate immunity responses in Arabidopsis and Choy Sum plants. Arabidopsis plants challenged with flg22 and elf18 elicitors could be differentiated from mock-treated plants by their Raman spectral fingerprints. From the difference Raman spectrum and the value of p at each Raman shift, we derived the Elicitor Response Index (ERI) as a quantitative measure of the response whereby a higher ERI value indicates a more significant elicitor-induced immune response. Among various Raman spectral bands contributing toward the ERI value, the most significant changes were observed in those associated with carotenoids and proteins. To validate these results, we investigated several characterized Arabidopsis pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) mutants. Compared to wild type (WT), positive regulatory mutants had ERI values close to zero, whereas negative regulatory mutants at early time points had higher ERI values. Similar to elicitor treatments, we derived an analogous Infection Response Index (IRI) as a quantitative measure to detect the early PTI response in Arabidopsis and Choy Sum plants infected with bacterial pathogens. The Raman spectral bands contributing toward a high IRI value were largely identical to the ERI Raman spectral bands. Raman spectroscopy is a convenient tool for rapid screening for Arabidopsis PTI mutants and may be suitable for the noninvasive and early diagnosis of pathogen-infected crop plants. Copyright © 2021 Chung, Singh, Huang, Koyyappurath, Seo, Mao, Diloknawarit, Ram, Sarojam and Chua.
Source Title: Frontiers in Plant Science
ISSN: 1664-462X
DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2021.746586
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
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