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Title: Updates on evaporation and condensation methods for the performance improvement of solar stills
Authors: Fu, He
Dai, Min
Song, Hanwen
Hou, Xiaoting
Riaz, Fahid 
Li, Shuai
Yang, Ke
Ali, Imran
Peng, Changsheng
Sultan, Muhammad
Keywords: Condensation rate
Evaporation rate
Productivity enhancement
Solar still
Issue Date: 28-Oct-2021
Publisher: MDPI
Citation: Fu, He, Dai, Min, Song, Hanwen, Hou, Xiaoting, Riaz, Fahid, Li, Shuai, Yang, Ke, Ali, Imran, Peng, Changsheng, Sultan, Muhammad (2021-10-28). Updates on evaporation and condensation methods for the performance improvement of solar stills. Energies 14 (21) : 7050. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
Abstract: Solar still, a small equipment using evaporation and condensation processes to get clean water, is expected to be widely used for sea/brackish water desalination, water purification, and wastewater treatment because of its convenient carrying, friendly environment, and low energy consumption. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in improving the productivity of solar still. This paper will reclassify the methods to improve the solar still by elevating the evaporation rate and condensation rate. The main methods increasing evaporation rate are as follows: (i) adding heat storage materials; (ii) using nanoparticles; (iii) changing structure of the absorption plate; and (iv) using photothermal materials. The primary methods increasing the condensation rate are as follows: (i) cooling the condensing surface; (ii) increasing the condensation area; (iii) changing the wettability of the condensing surface; and (iv) using a separate condenser. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are compared. Furthermore, this paper includes an economic analysis of current solar stills and a forecast of future developments. The freshwater cost of solar still is in the range of about USD 0.0061–0.277/L, which provides reference and direction for future re-searching solar stills on their low cost and high productivity. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Source Title: Energies
ISSN: 1996-1073
DOI: 10.3390/en14217050
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
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