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Title: Energy analysis of a solar driven vaccine refrigerator using environment-friendly refrigerants for off-grid locations
Authors: Raihan Uddin, Mohammed
Mahmud, Shadman
Salehin, Sayedus
Abdul Aziz Bhuiyan, Md
Riaz, Fahid 
Modi, Anish
Salman, Chaudhary Awais
Keywords: Modelling
Solar PV
Solar refrigeration
Thermal systems
Vaccine storage
Issue Date: 1-Sep-2021
Publisher: Elsevier Ltd
Citation: Raihan Uddin, Mohammed, Mahmud, Shadman, Salehin, Sayedus, Abdul Aziz Bhuiyan, Md, Riaz, Fahid, Modi, Anish, Salman, Chaudhary Awais (2021-09-01). Energy analysis of a solar driven vaccine refrigerator using environment-friendly refrigerants for off-grid locations. Energy Conversion and Management: X 11 : 100095. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
Abstract: In many remote localities, one of the underlying reasons for not receiving life-saving vaccines is the lack of electricity to store the vaccines in the required refrigerated conditions. Solar Photovoltaic (PV) refrigerators have been considered as a viable and green solution to store the vaccines in remote localities having no access to electricity. In this paper, a detailed methodology has been presented for the performance evaluation of a solar PV powered vaccine refrigerator for remote locations. Thermal modelling with hourly cooling load calculations and refrigeration cycle simulations were carried out. The performance parameters for three environment-friendly refrigerants: R152a, R1234yf, and R1234ze(E) has been compared against the commonly used R134a for two remote, off-grid locations in Bangladesh and South Sudan. The energy systems comprising of solar PV panels and batteries to run the refrigerator were modelled in HOMER software for techno-economic optimizations. For both the locations, R152a was found to be the best performing refrigerant exhibiting higher COP (2%?5.29%) as compared to the other refrigerants throughout the year, while R1234ze(E) exhibited COPs on par with R134a, and R1234yf had the least performance. Techno-economic analysis showed an energy system providing electricity to the refrigerator with R152a also had lower levelized cost of electricity (0.48%?2.54%) than the systems having other refrigerants in these locations. © 2021 The Author(s)
Source Title: Energy Conversion and Management: X
ISSN: 2590-1745
DOI: 10.1016/j.ecmx.2021.100095
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
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