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Title: A decarbonization roadmap for singapore and its energy policy implications
Authors: Lau, Hon Chung 
Ramakrishna, Seeram 
Zhang, Kai 
Hameed, Mohamed Ziaudeen Shahul
Keywords: Decarbonization
Issue Date: 9-Oct-2021
Publisher: MDPI
Citation: Lau, Hon Chung, Ramakrishna, Seeram, Zhang, Kai, Hameed, Mohamed Ziaudeen Shahul (2021-10-09). A decarbonization roadmap for singapore and its energy policy implications. Energies 14 (20) : 6455. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
Abstract: As a signatory to the Paris Agreement, Singapore is committed to achieving net-zero carbon emissions in the second half of the century. In this paper, we propose a decarbonization roadmap for Singapore based on an analysis of Singapore’s energy landscape and a technology mapping exercise. This roadmap consists of four major components. The first component, which also underpins the other three components, is using centralized post-combustion carbon capture technology to capture and compress CO2 emitted from multiple industrial sources in Jurong Island. The captured CO2 is then transported by ship or an existing natural gas pipeline to a neighboring country, where it will be stored permanently in a subsurface reservoir. Important to the success of this first-of-a-kind cross-border carbon capture and storage (CCS) project is the establishment of a regional CCS corridor, which makes use of economies of scale to reduce the cost of CO2 capture, transport, and injection. The second component of the roadmap is the production of hydrogen in a methane steam reforming plant which is integrated with the carbon capture plant. The third component is the modernizing of the refining sector by introducing biorefineries, increasing output to petrochemical plants, and employing post-combustion carbon capture. The fourth component is refueling the transport sector by introducing electric and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, using biofuels for aviation and hydrogen for marine vessels. The implications of this roadmap on Singapore’s energy policies are also discussed. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Source Title: Energies
ISSN: 1996-1073
DOI: 10.3390/en14206455
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
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