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Title: Surface engineering strategies to enhance the in situ performance of medical devices including atomic scale engineering
Authors: Sultana, Afreen
Zare, Mina
Luo, Hongrong
Ramakrishna, Seeram 
Keywords: Antimicro-bial activity
Atomic scale engineering
Medical devices
Modern surface engineering
Surface engineering
Traditional surface engineering
Issue Date: 30-Oct-2021
Publisher: MDPI
Citation: Sultana, Afreen, Zare, Mina, Luo, Hongrong, Ramakrishna, Seeram (2021-10-30). Surface engineering strategies to enhance the in situ performance of medical devices including atomic scale engineering. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22 (21) : 11788. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
Abstract: Decades of intense scientific research investigations clearly suggest that only a subset of a large number of metals, ceramics, polymers, composites, and nanomaterials are suitable as bio-materials for a growing number of biomedical devices and biomedical uses. However, biomaterials are prone to microbial infection due to Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), hepatitis, tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and many more. Hence, a range of surface engineering strategies are devised in order to achieve desired biocompatibility and antimicrobial performance in situ. Surface engineering strategies are a group of techniques that alter or modify the surface properties of the material in order to obtain a product with desired functionalities. There are two categories of surface engineering methods: conventional surface engineering methods (such as coating, bioactive coating, plasma spray coating, hydrothermal, lithography, shot peening, and electrophoretic deposition) and emerging surface engineering methods (laser treatment, robot laser treatment, electrospinning, electrospray, additive manufacturing, and radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique). Atomic-scale engineering, such as chemical vapor deposition, atomic layer etching, plasma immersion ion deposition, and atomic layer deposition, is a subsection of emerging technology that has demonstrated improved control and flexibility at finer length scales than compared to the conventional methods. With the advancements in technologies and the demand for even better control of biomaterial surfaces, research efforts in recent years are aimed at the atomic scale and molecular scale while incorporating functional agents in order to elicit optimal in situ performance. The functional agents include synthetic materials (monolithic ZnO, quaternary ammonium salts, silver nano-clusters, titanium diox-ide, and graphene) and natural materials (chitosan, totarol, botanical extracts, and nisin). This review highlights the various strategies of surface engineering of biomaterial including their functional mechanism, applications, and shortcomings. Additionally, this review article emphasizes atomic scale engineering of biomaterials for fabricating antimicrobial biomaterials and explores their challenges. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Source Title: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
ISSN: 1661-6596
DOI: 10.3390/ijms222111788
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

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