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Title: Polymeric hydrogels for controlled release of black tea and coffee extracts for topical applications
Authors: Makhija, Pooja
Kathuria, Himanshu 
Sethi, Gautam 
Grobben, Bert
Keywords: Black tea
Coffee milk interaction
Poly(acrylic acid)
Tea milk interaction
Issue Date: 21-Oct-2021
Publisher: MDPI
Citation: Makhija, Pooja, Kathuria, Himanshu, Sethi, Gautam, Grobben, Bert (2021-10-21). Polymeric hydrogels for controlled release of black tea and coffee extracts for topical applications. Gels 7 (4) : 174. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
Abstract: Tea and coffee are popular beverages. Both are also used in topical applications, such as ultraviolet (UV) protection, anti-aging, and wound healing. However, the impact of tea and coffee extract on skin cells is minimally explored. This study investigated the direct exposure of tea and coffee extract on skin cells using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. It was found that direct exposure of tea and coffee to skin cells can be toxic at a high dose on prolonged exposure (72 h). Therefore, it was hypothesized that a formulation providing a controlled release of tea and coffee could improve their skin compatibility. Thermally cross-linked poly(acrylic acid) hydrogels loaded with tea and coffee extracts (with and without milk) were formulated and optimized. The release profiles of these hydrogels were studied at varying loading efficiency. Milk addition with tea extract retarded the tea extract release from hydrogel while minimally affecting the coffee release. This effect was due to the molecular interaction of tea with milk components, showing changes in size, zeta potential, and polydispersity index. The release study best fitted the Korsmeyer–Peppas release model. Skin cells exposed to tea or coffee-loaded hydrogel showed normal skin cell morphology under fluorescence microscopic analysis. In conclusion, the hydrogels controlled the tea and coffee release and showed biocompatibility with skin cells. It can potentially be used for skin applications. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Source Title: Gels
ISSN: 2310-2861
DOI: 10.3390/gels7040174
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
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