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Title: Accuracy and Cost-effectiveness of Technology-Assisted Dietary Assessment Comparing the Automated Self-administered Dietary Assessment Tool, Intake24, and an Image-Assisted Mobile Food Record 24-Hour Recall Relative to Observed Intake: Protocol for a Randomized Crossover Feeding Study
Authors: Whitton, Clare 
Healy, Janelle D.
Collins, Clare E.
Mullan, Barbara
Rollo, Megan E.
Dhaliwal, Satvinder S. 
Norman, Richard
Boushey, Carol J.
Delp, Edward J.
Zhu, Fengqing
McCaffrey, Tracy A.
Kirkpatrick, Sharon, I
Atyeo, Paul
Mukhtar, Syed Aqif
Wright, Janine L.
Ramos-García, César
Pollard, Christina M.
Kerr, Deborah A.
Keywords: 24-hour recall
Automated self-administered dietary assessment tool
Controlled feeding
Diet surveys
Dietary measurement error
Energy intake
Image-assisted dietary assessment
Mobile food record
Mobile phone
Mobile technology
Issue Date: 13-Aug-2021
Publisher: JMIR Publications Inc.
Citation: Whitton, Clare, Healy, Janelle D., Collins, Clare E., Mullan, Barbara, Rollo, Megan E., Dhaliwal, Satvinder S., Norman, Richard, Boushey, Carol J., Delp, Edward J., Zhu, Fengqing, McCaffrey, Tracy A., Kirkpatrick, Sharon, I, Atyeo, Paul, Mukhtar, Syed Aqif, Wright, Janine L., Ramos-García, César, Pollard, Christina M., Kerr, Deborah A. (2021-08-13). Accuracy and Cost-effectiveness of Technology-Assisted Dietary Assessment Comparing the Automated Self-administered Dietary Assessment Tool, Intake24, and an Image-Assisted Mobile Food Record 24-Hour Recall Relative to Observed Intake: Protocol for a Randomized Crossover Feeding Study. JMIR Research Protocols 10 (12) : e32891. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
Abstract: Background: The assessment of dietary intake underpins population nutrition surveillance and nutritional epidemiology and is essential to inform effective public health policies and programs. Technological advances in dietary assessment that use images and automated methods have the potential to improve accuracy, respondent burden, and cost; however, they need to be evaluated to inform large-scale use. Objective: The aim of this study is to compare the accuracy, acceptability, and cost-effectiveness of 3 technology-assisted 24-hour dietary recall (24HR) methods relative to observed intake across 3 meals. Methods: Using a controlled feeding study design, 24HR data collected using 3 methods will be obtained for comparison with observed intake. A total of 150 healthy adults, aged 18 to 70 years, will be recruited and will complete web-based demographic and psychosocial questionnaires and cognitive tests. Participants will attend a university study center on 3 separate days to consume breakfast, lunch, and dinner, with unobtrusive documentation of the foods and beverages consumed and their amounts. Following each feeding day, participants will complete a 24HR process using 1 of 3 methods: the Automated Self-Administered Dietary Assessment Tool, Intake24, or the Image-Assisted mobile Food Record 24-Hour Recall. The sequence of the 3 methods will be randomized, with each participant exposed to each method approximately 1 week apart. Acceptability and the preferred 24HR method will be assessed using a questionnaire. Estimates of energy, nutrient, and food group intake and portion sizes from each 24HR method will be compared with the observed intake for each day. Linear mixed models will be used, with 24HR method and method order as fixed effects, to assess differences in the 24HR methods. Reporting bias will be assessed by examining the ratios of reported 24HR intake to observed intake. Food and beverage omission and intrusion rates will be calculated, and differences by 24HR method will be assessed using chi-square tests. Psychosocial, demographic, and cognitive factors associated with energy misestimation will be evaluated using chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression. The financial costs, time costs, and cost-effectiveness of each 24HR method will be assessed and compared using repeated measures analysis of variance tests. Results: Participant recruitment commenced in March 2021 and is planned to be completed by the end of 2021. Conclusions: This protocol outlines the methodology of a study that will evaluate the accuracy, acceptability, and cost-effectiveness of 3 technology-enabled dietary assessment methods. This will inform the selection of dietary assessment methods in future studies on nutrition surveillance and epidemiology. © Clare Whitton, Janelle D Healy, Clare E Collins, Barbara Mullan, Megan E Rollo, Satvinder S Dhaliwal, Richard Norman, Carol J Boushey, Edward J Delp, Fengqing Zhu, Tracy A McCaffrey, Sharon I Kirkpatrick, Paul Atyeo, Syed Aqif Mukhtar, Janine L Wright, César Ramos-García, Christina M Pollard, Deborah A Kerr. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (, 16.12.2021. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in JMIR Research Protocols, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.
Source Title: JMIR Research Protocols
ISSN: 1929-0748
DOI: 10.2196/32891
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
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