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Title: Preventing renal transplant failure
Authors: Vathsala, A 
Keywords: Animals
Calcineurin Inhibitors
Graft Rejection
Graft Survival
HLA Antigens
Immunosuppressive Agents
Kidney Transplantation
Issue Date: 1-Jan-2005
Citation: Vathsala, A (2005-01-01). Preventing renal transplant failure. Annals of the Academy of Medicine Singapore 34 (1) : 36-43. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Introduction: Allograft failure due to immunological or non-immunological causes or a combination and patient death after transplantation are the 2 major causes of renal transplant loss. This paper reviews the various causes of allograft failure and explores strategies for its prevention. Results: Immune mechanisms of renal allograft failure are those mediated by acute and chronic rejection and are initiated by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) disparity between donor and recipient and increased recipient immune responsiveness that results in pre-sensitisation against HLA antigens. Better HLA matching between donor and recipient in both live-donor and cadaveric renal transplant recipients and the use of more potent immunosuppressants has reduced the incidence of acute rejection and resulted in improved overall graft survivals in recent years. However, as the use of more potent immunosuppression increases the risk of infections and malignancy, tailoring therapy by administering more potent immunosuppression to those at higher immunological risk may result in a better balance between the risks and benefits of immunosuppressive therapies. Ischaemia of the donor kidney, calcineurin inhibitor (CNI), mediated nephrotoxicity, reduced renal mass, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and infections contribute to allograft failure through non-immunological mechanisms. Indeed, any cause of renal injury that results in nephron loss, either immunological or non-immunological, leads to reduced renal mass and initiates further renal damage due to hyperfiltration. Optimising these factors and minimising CNI nephrotoxicity are critical in reducing chronic allograft failure. Conclusions: Optimising each of these time-dependent and immunosuppressive drug-related factors would allow the maximisation of renal allograft function and survival.
Source Title: Annals of the Academy of Medicine Singapore
ISSN: 0304-4602
DOI: 10.47102/annals-acadmedsg.V34N1p36
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

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