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Title: Sociodemographic factors in relation to hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control in a multi-ethnic Asian population: A cross-sectional study
Authors: Liew, S.J. 
Lee, J.T.
Tan, C.S. 
Koh, C.H.G. 
Van Dam, R. 
Müller-Riemenschneider, F. 
Keywords: epidemiology
public health
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group
Citation: Liew, S.J., Lee, J.T., Tan, C.S., Koh, C.H.G., Van Dam, R., Müller-Riemenschneider, F. (2019). Sociodemographic factors in relation to hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control in a multi-ethnic Asian population: A cross-sectional study. BMJ Open 9 (5) : e025869. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Rights: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Abstract: Objectives Literature suggested that multi-ethnic Western populations experienced differential hypertension outcomes, but evidence is limited in Asia. This study was aimed to determine sociodemographic correlates of hypertension and its awareness, treatment and control among a multi-ethnic Asian population living in Singapore. Setting We used cross-sectional data of participants from the Multi-Ethnic Cohort (MEC) (n=14 530) recruited in Singapore between 2004 and 2010. Participants Participants who completed questionnaire and attended health examination, without cardiovascular diseases, cancer, stroke, renal failure, asthma and mental illnesses were included in the study. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine sociodemographics factors associated with hypertension, unawareness of having hypertension, untreated and uncontrolled hypertension. Results Among 10 215 participants (47.2% Chinese, 26.0% Malay and 26.8% Indian), hypertension prevalence was estimated to be 31.1%. Older age, Malay ethnicity, male, lower educational level and being homemaker or retired/unemployed were factors significantly associated with hypertension. Stratified analysis suggested that age and education were consistently associated with hypertension across all ethnic groups. The proportions of being unaware, untreated and uncontrolled were 49.0%, 25.2% and 62.4%, respectively. Ethnicity and younger age were associated with unawareness; younger age, male and lower educational level were associated with untreated hypertension and older age was associated with uncontrolled hypertension. Conclusions In this study, ethnic differences in relation to hypertension were associated with sociodemographic variability in ethnic groups. Age and educational level were consistent correlates of hypertension in all ethnic groups. Unawareness and uncontrolled hypertension were common in this Asian population and associated with sociodemographic factors. More targeted strategies may be required to overcome the observed disparities. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.
Source Title: BMJ Open
ISSN: 20446055
DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025869
Rights: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
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