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Title: Association of haptoglobin phenotype with incident acute myocardial infarction in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes
Authors: Gurung, R.L.
Yiamunaa, M.
Liu, S.
Liu, J.J.
Chan, C.
Choo, R.W.M.
Ang, K.
Sum, C.F.
Tavintharan, S.
Lim, S.C. 
Keywords: Acute myocardial infarction
Haptoglobin polymorphism
Type 2 diabetes
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: BioMed Central Ltd.
Citation: Gurung, R.L., Yiamunaa, M., Liu, S., Liu, J.J., Chan, C., Choo, R.W.M., Ang, K., Sum, C.F., Tavintharan, S., Lim, S.C. (2019). Association of haptoglobin phenotype with incident acute myocardial infarction in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Cardiovascular Diabetology 18 (1) : 65. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
Abstract: Background: Haptoglobin (Hp) is an abundant plasma protein with anti-oxidant properties. Hp polymorphism is associated with cardio-metabolic dysfunction but the allele conferring risk of developing acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the association of Hp phenotype (Hp 1-1, 2-1 and 2-2) with incident AMI in Chinese T2D patients. Methods: This prospective study included Chinese T2D participants from the Singapore Study of Macro-angiopathy and Micro-vascular Reactivity in Type 2 Diabetes (SMART2D) and Diabetic Nephropathy (DN) cohorts. Information on incidence of non-fatal AMI was collected by data linkage with the Singapore Myocardial Infarction Registry. Hp phenotype was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the association of Hp phenotype with incident AMI, adjusted for traditional risk factors separately in two cohorts, then meta-analysed. Results: In total, 2324 Chinese participants (SMART2D; N = 1034, mean age [SD] of 59 [11]) and (DN: N = 1290, mean age [SD] of 58 [12]) were included in this study. There were total of 30 (56 events per 10,000 patient-years) and 99 (128 events per 10,000 patient-years) AMI events in SMART2D and DN cohorts respectively. In meta-analysis, presence of Hp 1 allele conferred 43% (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.43 [95% CI 1.10-1.87], P = 0.008, Phet = 0.413) increased risk of incident AMI, independent of age, sex, smoking, body mass index, HbA1c, diabetes duration, lipids, hypertension, renal function and usage of insulin and RAS antagonist. In adjusted model, compared to Hp 2-2 groups, individuals with Hp 1-1 (HR = 2.18 [95% CI 1.19-3.76], P = 0.010, Phet = 0.193) and Hp 2-1 (HR = 1.45 [95% CI 0.98-2.14], P = 0.065, Phet = 0.576) were at a higher risk of incident AMI. Moreover, compared to Hp 2-2 groups, non-Hp 2-2 groups (Hp 1-1 and Hp 2-1) were at 55% increased risk of incident AMI (HR = 1.55 [95% CI 1.07-2.24], P = 0.021, Phet = 0.940). Conclusions: Hp 1-1 phenotype was associated with increased risk of incident AMI, independent of traditional risk factors, in Chinese patients with T2D. Hp phenotyping may allow for identification of T2D individuals at higher risk for onset of AMI. However, further studies are needed to understand the underlying mechanism between Hp alleles and risk for AMI. © 2019 The Author(s).
Source Title: Cardiovascular Diabetology
ISSN: 14752840
DOI: 10.1186/s12933-019-0867-4
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
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