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Title: 3D printed electrodes for efficient membrane capacitive deionization
Authors: Vafakhah, S.
Sim, G.J.
Saeedikhani, M. 
Li, X.
Valdivia Y Alvarado, P.
Yang, H.Y.
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
Citation: Vafakhah, S., Sim, G.J., Saeedikhani, M., Li, X., Valdivia Y Alvarado, P., Yang, H.Y. (2019). 3D printed electrodes for efficient membrane capacitive deionization. Nanoscale Advances 1 (12) : 4804-4811. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Rights: Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International
Abstract: There is increasing interests in cost-effective and energy-efficient technologies for the desalination of salt water. However, the challenge in the scalability of the suitable compositions of electrodes has significantly hindered the development of capacitive deionization (CDI) as a promising technology for the desalination of brackish water. Herein, we introduced a 3D printing technology as a new route to fabricate electrodes with adjustable composition, which exhibited large-scale applications as free-standing, binder-free, and robust electrodes. The 3D printed electrodes were designed with ordered macro-channels that facilitated effective ion diffusion. The high salt removal capacity of 75 mg g-1 was achieved for membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) using 3D printed nitrogen-doped graphene oxide/carbon nanotube electrodes with the total electrode mass of 20 mg. The improved mechanical stability and strong bonding of the chemical components in the electrodes allowed a long cycle lifetime for the MCDI devices. The adjusted operational mode (current density) enabled a low energy consumption of 0.331 W h g-1 and high energy recovery of ?27%. Furthermore, the results obtained from the finite element simulations of the ion diffusion behavior quantified the structure-function relationships of the MCDI electrodes. © 2019 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Source Title: Nanoscale Advances
ISSN: 25160230
DOI: 10.1039/c9na00507b
Rights: Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International
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