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Title: Toxoplasma gondii ROP18 inhibits human glioblastoma cell apoptosis through a mitochondrial pathway by targeting host cell P2X1
Authors: Zhou, L.-J.
Chen, M.
Puthiyakunnon, S.
He, C.
Xia, J.
He, C.Y. 
Deng, S.-Q.
Peng, H.-J.
Keywords: Apoptosis
Toxoplasma gondii
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: BioMed Central Ltd.
Citation: Zhou, L.-J., Chen, M., Puthiyakunnon, S., He, C., Xia, J., He, C.Y., Deng, S.-Q., Peng, H.-J. (2019). Toxoplasma gondii ROP18 inhibits human glioblastoma cell apoptosis through a mitochondrial pathway by targeting host cell P2X1. Parasites and Vectors 12 (1) : 284. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
Abstract: Background: Apoptosis plays a critical role in the embryonic development, homeostasis of immune system and host defense against intracellular microbial pathogens. Infection by the obligate intracellular pathogen Toxoplasma gondii can both inhibit and induce host cell apoptosis; however, the parasitic factors involved remain unclear. The T. gondii virulence factor ROP18 (TgROP18) has been reported to regulate host cell apoptosis; nevertheless, results for this regulation have been rarely reported or have provided contradictory findings. Human purinergic receptor 1 (P2X1) is an ATP-gated ion channel that responds to ATP stimulation and functions in cell apoptosis mediation. The precise roles of TgROP18 in T. gondii pathogenesis, and the relationship between TgROP18 and host P2X1 in host cell apoptosis are yet to be revealed. Methods: Apoptosis rates were determined by flow cytometry (FCM) and TUNEL assay. The interaction between TgROP18 and the host P2X1 was measured by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assay. Calcium influx and mitochondrial membrane depolarization were determined by FCM after JC-1 staining. The translocation of cytochrome C (Cyt C), Bax and Bcl2 proteins, expression of the apoptotic proteins PARP and caspase activation were detected by western blotting. Results: The apoptosis rates of glial or immune cells (human SF268, mouse RAW264.7 and human THP-1 cells) infected by any T. gondii strain (RH-type I, ME49-type II and VEG-type III) were significantly inhibited compared with their uninfected controls. TgROP18 inhibited ATP-induced apoptosis of SF268 with P2X1 expression, but had no effect on RAW264.7 or THP-1 cells without detectable P2X1 expression. It was further identified that TgROP18 interacted with P2X1, and overexpression of ROP18 in COS7 cells significantly inhibited cell apoptosis mediated by P2X1. Moreover, TgROP18 also inhibited P2X1-mediated Ca2+ influx, translocation of cytochrome C from the mitochondria to the cytosol, and ATP-triggered caspase activation. Conclusions: Toxoplasma gondii infection inhibits ATP-induced host cell apoptosis, regardless of strain virulence and host cell lines. TgROP18 targets the purinergic receptor P2X1 of the SF268 human neural cells and inhibits ATP-induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway, suggesting a sensor role for the host proapoptotic protein P2X1 in this process. © 2019 The Author(s).
Source Title: Parasites and Vectors
ISSN: 17563305
DOI: 10.1186/s13071-019-3529-1
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
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