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Title: Rinsing with water for 1 min after milk formula increases plaque pH
Authors: Koh, SGS
Sim, CJ
Hu, S
Hong, C.H.L. 
Duggal, MS
Keywords: Dental plaque
Oral hygiene
Pediatric dentistry
Preventive dentistry
Child, Preschool
Dental Plaque
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Issue Date: 1-Aug-2021
Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Citation: Koh, SGS, SIM YU FAN, Sim, CJ, Hu, S, Hong, C.H.L., Duggal, MS (2021-08-01). Rinsing with water for 1 min after milk formula increases plaque pH. European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry 22 (4) : 611-618. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Purpose: Parents find it challenging to follow recommendations to brush young children after feeds at night despite the increase caries risk. This study compared three clinical recommendations (dilution, rinsing and wiping) on plaque pH after formula consumption. Methods: Eighteen subjects were recruited. The five interventions with 2-week washout between visits included: Rinse with undiluted formula for 30 s (UF); rinse with 50% diluted formula for 30 s (DF); rinse with undiluted formula for 30 s, followed by rinsing with water for 1 minute (UF/R); rinse with undiluted formula for 30 s, followed by wiping (UF/W); rinse with 10% sucrose for 30 s as control (C). Plaque samples were collected at baseline, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 30 min after the intervention and pH measured using the plaque sampling method. Results: UF/R resulted in significantly smaller pH drops at 5, 10 and 20 min compared to UF. It also resulted in higher minimum pH (UF/R: 6.34 ± 0.36 Vs UF: 6.06 ± 0.40, p = 0.02), smaller maximum pH drop (UF/R: 0.63 ± 0.35 Vs UF: 0.90 ± 0.49, p = 0.03), smaller sum of change of hydrogen ion concentration (UF/R: 9.22 × 10−7 ± 7.8 × 10−7 Vs UF: 2.30 × 10−6 ± 2.6 × 10−6, p = 0.04), and smaller area under the curve (UF/R: 7.70 ± 5.44 Vs UF: 13.44 ± 9.44, p = 0.02). DF and UF/W did not result in any significant pH change compared to UF. Conclusions: Of the three clinical recommendations, only rinsing with water for 1 min after undiluted formula reduced plaque acidogenicity. Teeth wiping with a moist cloth and 50% dilution of infant formula did not have an effect on plaque acidity.
Source Title: European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry
ISSN: 1818-6300
DOI: 10.1007/s40368-020-00598-8
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