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Title: Effects of Encoding Fields of Permanent Magnet Arrays on Image Quality in Low-Field Portable MRI Systems
Authors: Gong, J.
Huang, S.Y. 
Ren, Z.H.
Yu, W.
Keywords: Low-field
non-Fourier-transform-based image reconstruction
permanent magnet array
portable MRI
spatial encoding magnetic field
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Citation: Gong, J., Huang, S.Y., Ren, Z.H., Yu, W. (2019). Effects of Encoding Fields of Permanent Magnet Arrays on Image Quality in Low-Field Portable MRI Systems. IEEE Access 7 : 80310-80327. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Rights: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Abstract: Low-cost and portable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may make this imaging modality more accessible. Permanent-magnet-array is an option to supply a static magnetic field (B-field) with portability, low cost, and no power consumption. However, it has low field strength. Moreover, it does not have linear gradients, thus the signals and the images are not linked by the Fourier transformation as they are in a conventional system. The B-field generated by an array and called spatial-encoding-magnetic-field (SEM), is spatially non-linear and always on. Such an SEM, in terms of the field strength, direction, homogeneity, pattern and its field pattern variation, is related to the image quality. This relation is crucial because it can be used to guide the magnet and system design for high image quality and portability. However, it has not been systematically studied. In this paper, the characteristics of the SEMs from different magnet array designs are identified. Due to the non-linearity of the SEMs, local structural similarity (SSIM) index is proposed to evaluate the region-dependent image quality, and local k-space is applied to analyze the region-dependent effects of these SEMs on image reconstruction. Moreover, point spread function is applied to analyze the overall effect of the SEMs on the quality of reconstructed images. Besides the intrinsic effects of the SEMs, those of the external factors, e.g. the receive coil sensitivity, are analyzed. This study identifies the unique characteristics of the SEMs in a permanent-magnet-array-based MRI system, and offers methods to analyze the unique relation between the image quality and the field. It can not only guide the magnet designs but also trigger more design ideas, e.g., the design of the mechanical movement of the magnet array, and that of the static magnetic field shimming coils, paving the way towards a low-field MRI system with practical portability. © 2013 IEEE.
Source Title: IEEE Access
ISSN: 2169-3536
DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2923118
Rights: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
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