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Title: Characterization of carbonaceous aerosols in Singapore: Insight from black carbon fragments and trace metal ions detected by a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer
Authors: Rivellini, L.-H. 
Adam, M.G. 
Kasthuriarachchi, N. 
Lee, A.K.Y. 
Issue Date: 20-May-2020
Publisher: Copernicus GmbH
Citation: Rivellini, L.-H., Adam, M.G., Kasthuriarachchi, N., Lee, A.K.Y. (2020-05-20). Characterization of carbonaceous aerosols in Singapore: Insight from black carbon fragments and trace metal ions detected by a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 20 (10) : 5977-5993. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
Abstract: Understanding sources and atmospheric processes that can influence the physiochemical properties of carbonaceous aerosols is essential to evaluate their impacts on air quality and climate. However, resolving the sources, emission characteristics, and aging processes of carbonaceous aerosols in complex urban environments remains challenging. In this work, a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) was deployed to characterize organic aerosols (OAs), refractory black carbon (rBC), and trace metals in Singapore, a highly urbanized city with multiple local and regional air pollution sources in the tropical region. rBC (CC 1 CC 9 ) fragments and trace metal ions (K+, Na+, Ni+, V+, and Rb+) were integrated into our positive matrix factorization of OA. Two types of fossil fuel combustion-related OAs with different degrees of oxygenation were identified. This work provides evidence that over 90 % of rB+ originated from local combustion sources with a major part related to traffic and ∼30 % associated with fresh secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced under the influence of shipping and industrial emission activities (e.g., refineries and petrochemical plants) during daytime. The results also show that ∼43 % of the total rB+ was emitted from local traffic, while the rest of the rBC fraction stemmed from multiple sources including vehicular sources, shipping, and industrial emissions, but was not fully resolved. There was only a weak association of the cooking-related OA component with rB+. Although there was no observable biomass burning episode during the sampling period, K+ and Rb+ were mainly associated with the more oxidized oxygenated OA component, indicating the potential contribution of regional biomass burning and/or coal combustion emissions to this aged OA component. Furthermore, the aerosol pollutants transported from the industrial area and shipping ports presented higher C+ 1 =C+ 3 and V+=Ni+ ratios than those associated with traffic. The observed association between Na+ and rB+ suggests that the contribution of anthropogenic emissions to total particulate sodium should not be ignored in coastal urban environments. Overall, this work demonstrates that rBC fragments and trace metal ions can improve our understanding of the sources, emission characteristics, and aging history of carbonaceous aerosol (OA and rB+) in this type of complex urban environment. © 2020 Author(s).
Source Title: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
ISSN: 16807316
DOI: 10.5194/acp-20-5977-2020
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
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