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Title: Factors affecting clinical outcomes in the management of melioidosis in Singapore: a 16-year case series
Authors: Chien, J.M.-F 
Saffari, S.E 
Tan, A.-L 
Tan, T.-T
Issue Date: 2018
Citation: Chien, J.M.-F, Saffari, S.E, Tan, A.-L, Tan, T.-T (2018). Factors affecting clinical outcomes in the management of melioidosis in Singapore: a 16-year case series. BMC infectious diseases 18 (1) : 482. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
Abstract: RESULTS: Culture proven melioidosis occurred in 219 patients, 83.1% were male with a mean age of 55.7 ± 14.3 years and 63.0% had diabetes mellitus. Most patients (71.7%) present within 4 weeks of symptom onset and the most common symptom was fever. The majority of patients had bacteremia (67.6%) and had infection involving the respiratory system (71.2%), presenting most frequently with multi-lobar pneumonia. Thirty-four (15.5%) deaths occurred during the initial hospitalisation with a median time from presentation to death of 6.0 days (interquartile range: 2.8-16.3). Twelve patients demised before the diagnosis of melioidosis was made. Univariate analysis identified patients with symptom duration of longer than 4 weeks, bacteremia, and disease requiring mechanical ventilation, inotropic support or temporary dialysis as factors that were significantly associated with mortality. Having bacteremia and disease requiring mechanical ventilation remained statistically significant factors in the multivariable analysis. Twenty-one (11.4%) patients developed at least 1 episode of culture proven recurrent infection, with 15 recurring within the first 12 months of their initial infection. Eight patients developed more than 1 episode of culture proven recurrent infection. Patients with multifocal infection were more likely to develop recurrent infection.CONCLUSION: In metropolitan Singapore, melioidosis was associated with mortality in excess of 15%, where more than a third occurred before diagnosis. This study reminds local physicians that melioidosis is still a serious infection affecting local male diabetic patients and an important differential diagnosis in a patient presenting with severe multi-lobar pneumonia and septic shock. Recurrent infections occurred in 11.4% and the weight-based dosing of oral eradication antibiotics may improve the management of this disease locally.BACKGROUND: Burkholderia pseudomallei is a gram negative bacteria that causes a spectrum of human diseases in the tropics. Although melioidosis is endemic in Southeast Asia, large clinical case series were rarely reported from metropolitan Singapore.METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 219 consecutive patients with culture proven infections due to Burkholderia pseudomallei between the years 2001 to 2016 managed in Singapore General Hospital (SGH). We aimed to review local patients' characteristics and identify clinical factors associated with mortality and recurrent melioidosis.
Source Title: BMC infectious diseases
ISSN: 14712334
DOI: 10.1186/s12879-018-3393-1
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
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