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Title: Submillimeter diameter poly(vinyl alcohol) vascular graft patency in rabbit model
Authors: Cutiongco, M.F.A
Kukumberg, M 
Peneyra, J.L 
Yeo, M.S
Yao, J.Y
Rufaihah, A.J 
Le Visage, C
Ho, J.P 
Yim, E.K.F 
Keywords: Biomechanics
Blood vessels
Doppler effect
Endothelial cells
Mechanical properties
Patents and inventions
Polyvinyl alcohols
Transplantation (surgical)
Compliance matching
Small diameter vascular grafts
Vascular grafts
Issue Date: 2016
Citation: Cutiongco, M.F.A, Kukumberg, M, Peneyra, J.L, Yeo, M.S, Yao, J.Y, Rufaihah, A.J, Le Visage, C, Ho, J.P, Yim, E.K.F (2016). Submillimeter diameter poly(vinyl alcohol) vascular graft patency in rabbit model. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology 4 (JUN) : 44. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Microvascular surgery is becoming a prevalent surgical practice. Replantation, hand reconstruction, orthopedic, and free tissue transfer procedures all rely on microvascular surgery for the repair of venous and arterial defects at the millimeter and submillimeter levels. Often, a vascular graft is required for the procedure as a means to bridge the gap between native arteries. While autologous vessels are desired for their bioactivity and non-thrombogenicity, the tedious harvest process, lack of availability, and caliber or mechanical mismatch contribute to graft failure. Thus, there is a need for an off-the-shelf artificial vascular graft that has low thrombogenic properties and mechanical properties matching those of submillimeter vessels. Poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel (PVA) has excellent prospects as a vascular graft due to its bioinertness, low thrombogenicity, high water content, and tunable mechanical properties. Here, we fabricated PVA grafts with submillimeter diameter and mechanical properties that closely approximated those of the rabbit femoral artery. In vitro platelet adhesion and microparticle release assay verified the low thrombogenicity of PVA. A stringent proof-of-concept in vivo test was performed by implanting PVA grafts in rabbit femoral artery with multilevel arterial occlusion. Laser Doppler measurements indicated the improved perfusion of the distal limb after implantation with PVA grafts. Moreover, ultrasound Doppler and angiography verified that the submillimeter diameter PVA vascular grafts remained patent for 2 weeks without the aid of anticoagulant or antithrombotics. Endothelial cells were observed in the luminal surface of one patent PVA graft. The advantageous non-thrombogenic and tunable mechanical properties of PVA that are retained even in the submillimeter diameter dimensions support the application of this biomaterial for vascular replacement in microvascular surgery. © 2016 Cutiongco, Kukumberg, Peneyra, Yeo, Yao, Rufaihah, Le Visage, Ho and Yim.
Source Title: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
ISSN: 2296-4185
DOI: 10.3389/fbioe.2016.00044
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