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Title: Evaluating the joint toxicity of two benzophenone-type UV filters on the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with response surface methodology
Authors: Mao, F 
He, Y 
Gin, K.-H 
Keywords: benzophenone 1
benzophenone derivative
unclassified drug
cell growth
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
concentration (parameters)
environmental exposure
green alga
growth rate
growth regulation
response surface method
toxicity testing
ultraviolet radiation
Issue Date: 2018
Citation: Mao, F, He, Y, Gin, K.-H (2018). Evaluating the joint toxicity of two benzophenone-type UV filters on the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with response surface methodology. Toxics 6 (1) : 8. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: The widespread occurrence of benzophenone-type ultraviolet (UV) filter has raised the public concerns over the ecotoxicological effects of these chemicals. The present study assessed the joint toxicity of two representative benzophenones, benzophenone-1 (BP-1) and benzophenone-3 (BP-3), on the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using response surface methodologies (RSM). Specific growth rate and photosynthetic pigments were used as endpoints to evaluate the toxic effects. Generally, exposure to the combined BP-1 and BP-3 negatively affected cell growth and pigments production, with higher inhibitions at higher exposure concentrations. The simultaneous reduction in growth rate and pigments contents indicated that BP-1 and BP-3 regulated the growth of the tested alga by affecting the photosynthesis process. Results also showed that second order polynomial regression models fitted well with experimental results for all endpoints. The obtained regression models further indicated that the effects of the combination stemmed significantly from the linear concentration of BP-1 and BP-3. The overall results demonstrated that RSM could be a useful tool in ecotoxicological studies. © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Source Title: Toxics
ISSN: 2305-6304
DOI: 10.3390/toxics6010008
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