Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8090528
Title: Development of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess the dietary intake of a multi-ethnic urban asian population
Authors: Neelakantan N. 
Whitton C. 
Seah S.
Koh H. 
Rebello S.A. 
Lim J.Y.
Chen S.
Chan M.F.
Chew L.
Van Dam R.M. 
Keywords: ascorbic acid
calcium
fat
iron
polyunsaturated fatty acid
retinol
saturated fatty acid
sodium
adult
aged
Article
dietary fiber
dietary intake
female
food composition
food frequency questionnaire
food intake
human
major clinical study
male
nutrient availability
nutritional assessment
Singapore
adolescent
adverse effects
Asian continental ancestry group
comparative study
diet
eating
epidemiology
ethnology
evaluation study
feeding behavior
health
middle aged
nutritional status
pilot study
questionnaire
reproducibility
statistical model
time factor
young adult
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Asian Continental Ancestry Group
Diet
Eating
Feeding Behavior
Female
Humans
Linear Models
Male
Middle Aged
Nutritional Status
Pilot Projects
Reproducibility of Results
Singapore
Surveys and Questionnaires
Time Factors
Urban Health
Young Adult
Issue Date: 2016
Citation: Neelakantan N., Whitton C., Seah S., Koh H., Rebello S.A., Lim J.Y., Chen S., Chan M.F., Chew L., Van Dam R.M. (2016). Development of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess the dietary intake of a multi-ethnic urban asian population. Nutrients 8 (9) : 528. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8090528
Abstract: Assessing habitual food consumption is challenging in multi-ethnic cosmopolitan settings. We systematically developed a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in a multi-ethnic population in Singapore, using data from two 24-h dietary recalls from a nationally representative sample of 805 Singapore residents of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity aged 18-79 years. Key steps included combining reported items on 24-h recalls into standardized food groups, developing a food list for the FFQ, pilot testing of different question formats, and cognitive interviews. Percentage contribution analysis and stepwise regression analysis were used to identify foods contributing cumulatively ?90% to intakes and individually ?1% to intake variance of key nutrients, for the total study population and for each ethnic group separately. Differences between ethnic groups were observed in proportions of consumers of certain foods (e.g., lentil stews, 1%-47%; and pork dishes, 0%-50%). The number of foods needed to explain variability in nutrient intakes differed substantially by ethnic groups and was substantially larger for the total population than for separate ethnic groups. A 163-item FFQ covered >95% of total population intake for all key nutrients. The methodological insights provided in this paper may be useful in developing similar FFQs in other multi-ethnic settings. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Source Title: Nutrients
URI: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/173992
ISSN: 20726643
DOI: 10.3390/nu8090528
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