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Title: Reversible multi-electron redox chemistry of -conjugated N-containing heteroaromatic molecule-based organic cathodes
Authors: Chengxin Peng 
Guo-Hong Ning 
Jie Su 
Guiming Zhong
Wei Tang 
Bingbing Tian 
Chenliang Su 
Dingyi Yu 
Lianhai Zu
Jinhu Yang
Man-Fai Ng
Yong-Sheng Hu
Yong Yang
Michel Armand
Kian Ping Loh 
Issue Date: 8-May-2017
Citation: Chengxin Peng, Guo-Hong Ning, Jie Su, Guiming Zhong, Wei Tang, Bingbing Tian, Chenliang Su, Dingyi Yu, Lianhai Zu, Jinhu Yang, Man-Fai Ng, Yong-Sheng Hu, Yong Yang, Michel Armand, Kian Ping Loh (2017-05-08). Reversible multi-electron redox chemistry of -conjugated N-containing heteroaromatic molecule-based organic cathodes 2. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Even though organic molecules with well-designed functional groups can be programmed to have high electron density per unit mass, their poor electrical conductivity and low cycle stability limit their applications in batteries. Here we report a facile synthesis of π-conjugated quinoxaline-based heteroaromatic molecules (3Q) by condensation of cyclic carbonyl molecules with o-phenylenediamine. 3Q features a number of electron-deficient pyrazine sites, where multiple redox reactions take place. When hybridized with graphene and coupled with an ether-based electrolyte, an organic cathode based on 3Q molecules displays a discharge capacity of 395 mAh g-1 at 400 mA g-1 (1C) in the voltage range of 1.2-3.9 V and a nearly 70% capacity retention after 10,000 cycles at 8 A g-1. It also exhibits a capacity of 222 mAh g-1 at 20C, which corresponds to 60% of the initial specific capacity. Our results offer evidence that heteroaromatic molecules with multiple redox sites are promising in developing high-energy-density, long-cycle-life organic rechargeable batteries. © 2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved.
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