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Title: Economic Production of Monoclinic Bismuth Vanadate from Waste Vanadium Ions: Process Design and Cost-Benefit Analysis
Authors: Zhan Guowu 
Yao Zhiyi 
Ng Wei Cheng 
Li He
Lim Ming Xiang
Zhi Yiwei
Koh Shin Nuo
Wang Chi-Hwa 
Keywords: Bismuth vanadate
Carbon black waste
Clean production
Oil refinery
Vanadium recovery
Issue Date: 2019
Citation: Zhan Guowu, Yao Zhiyi, Ng Wei Cheng, Li He, Lim Ming Xiang, Zhi Yiwei, Koh Shin Nuo, Wang Chi-Hwa (2019). Economic Production of Monoclinic Bismuth Vanadate from Waste Vanadium Ions: Process Design and Cost-Benefit Analysis. Journal of Cleaner Production 240 : 118-188. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Carbon black waste generated in Singapore oil refinery contains a high concentration of vanadium (>14000 ppm on dry weight basis). Considering the high market value of the waste vanadium component, in this work, an economic and eco-friendly production strategy of monoclinic bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) has been developed based on vanadium recovery from carbon black waste leachates. The total recovery of vanadium from the carbon black waste can reach 99%. Importantly, the BiVO4 could be utilized as photocatalysts to degrade organic dyes under visible-light irradiation. Further economic analysis on the industrial-scale production of BiVO4 was studied after scaling up the production process and evaluating the profitability associated with operations over a 10-year period. Considering a 30 tons/day processing rate of wet carbon black waste feed, the estimated discounted payback period at 8% discount rate is 1.36 years after plant commissioning. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd
Source Title: Journal of Cleaner Production
ISSN: 0959-6526
DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.118188
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