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|Title:||Effective antibiotics in combination against extreme drug-resistant pseudomonas aeruginosa with decreased susceptibility to polymyxin B||Authors:||Lim T.-P.
metallo beta lactamase
colony forming unit
in vitro study
minimum inhibitory concentration
polymerase chain reaction
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Drug Therapy, Combination
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
|Issue Date:||2011||Citation:||Lim T.-P., Lee W., Tan T.-Y., Sasikala S., Teo J., Hsu L.-Y., Tan T.-T., Syahidah N., Kwa A.L. (2011). Effective antibiotics in combination against extreme drug-resistant pseudomonas aeruginosa with decreased susceptibility to polymyxin B. PLoS ONE 6 (12) : e28177. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028177||Abstract:||Objective: Extreme drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (XDR-PA) with decreased susceptibility to polymyxin B (PB) has emerged in Singapore, causing infections in immunocompromised hosts. Combination therapy may be the only viable therapeutic option until new antibiotics become available. The objective of this study is to assess the in vitro activity of various antibiotics against local XDR-PA isolates. Methods: PA isolates from all public hospitals in Singapore were systematically collected between 2006 and 2007. MICs were determined according to CLSI guidelines. All XDR-PA isolates identified were genotyped using a PCR-based method. Time-kill studies (TKS) were performed with approximately 10 5 CFU/ml at baseline using clinically achievable unbound concentrations of amikacin (A), levofloxacin (L), meropenem (M), rifampicin (R) and PB alone and in combination. Bactericidal activity (primary endpoint) was defined as a ?3 log 10 CFU/ml decrease in the colony count from the initial inoculum at 24 hours. Results: 22 clinical XDR-PA isolates with PB MIC 2-16 ?g/ml were collected. From clonal typing, 5 clonal groups were identified and nine isolates exhibited clonal diversity. In TKS, meropenem plus PB, amikacin plus meropenem, amikacin plus rifampicin, amikacin plus PB exhibited bactericidal activity in 8/22, 3/22, 1/22 and 6/22 isolates at 24 hours respectively. Against the remaining ten isolates where none of the dual-drug combination achieved bactericidal activity against, only the triple-antibiotic combinations of ARP and AMP achieved bactericidal activity against 7/10 and 6/10 isolates respectively. Conclusion: Bactericidal activity with sustained killing effect of ?99.9% is critical for eradicating XDR-PA infections, especially in immunocompromised hosts. These findings underscore the difficulty of developing combination therapeutic options against XDR-PA, demonstrating that at least 3 antibiotics are required in combination and that efficacy is strain dependant. © 2011 Lim et al.||Source Title:||PLoS ONE||URI:||https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/162021||ISSN:||19326203||DOI:||10.1371/journal.pone.0028177|
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