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Title: HOXA9 is a novel myopia risk gene
Authors: Liang C.-L.
Hsu P.-Y.
Ngo C.S. 
Seow W.J. 
Karnani N. 
Pan H.
Saw S.-M. 
Juo S.-H.H.
Keywords: HOXA9
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: BioMed Central Ltd.
Citation: Liang C.-L., Hsu P.-Y., Ngo C.S., Seow W.J., Karnani N., Pan H., Saw S.-M., Juo S.-H.H. (2019). HOXA9 is a novel myopia risk gene. BMC Ophthalmology 19 (1) : 28. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Purpose: A recent meta-analysis revealed PAX6 as a risk gene for myopia. There is a link between PAX6 and HOXA9. Furthermore, HOXA9 has been reported to activate TGF-? that is a risk factor for myopia. We speculate HOXA9 may participate in myopia development. Methods: The Singapore GUSTO birth cohort provides data on children's cycloplegic refraction measured at age of 3 years and their methylation profile based on the umbilical cord DNA. The HOXA9 expression levels were measured in the eyes of mono-ocular form deprivation myopia in mice. The plasmid with the mouse HOXA9 cDNA was constructed and then transfected to mouse primary retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. The expression levels of myopia-related genes and cell proliferation were measured in the HOXA9-overexpressed RPE cells. Results: A total of 519 children had data on methylation profile and cycloplegic refraction. The mean spherical equivalent refraction (SE) was 0.90D. Among 8 SE outliers (worse than -2D), 7 children had HOXA9 hypomethylation. The HOXA9 levels in the retina of myopic eyes was 2.65-fold (p = 0.029; paired t-test) higher than the uncovered fellow eyes. When HOXA9 was over-expressed in the RPE cells, TGF-?, MMP2, FGF2 and IGF1R expression levels were dose-dependently increased by HOXA9. However, over-expression of HOXA9 had no significant influence on IGF1 or HGF expression. In addition, HOXA9 also increased RPE proliferation. Conclusion: Based on the human, animal and cellular data, the transcription factor HOXA9 may promote the expression of pro-myopia genes and RPE proliferation, which eventually contribute to myopia development. © 2019 The Author(s).
Source Title: BMC Ophthalmology
ISSN: 14712415
DOI: 10.1186/s12886-019-1038-9
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