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Title: Validation of a semi-quantitative FFQ for 18-month-old toddlers: The Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) study
Authors: Lim H.X.
Toh J.Y.
Tan K.H.
Chong Y.-S. 
Yap F.
Godfrey K.M.
Lee Y.S. 
Chong M.F.-F. 
Keywords: FFQ
Nutrient intake
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Citation: Lim H.X., Toh J.Y., Tan K.H., Chong Y.-S., Yap F., Godfrey K.M., Lee Y.S., Chong M.F.-F. (2019). Validation of a semi-quantitative FFQ for 18-month-old toddlers: The Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) study. Public Health Nutrition. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: ObjectiveDietary intake of toddlers has been of growing interest due to its long-term consequences on health. However, previous works have focused largely on Caucasian populations and less is known about Asian toddlers. We aimed to validate a semi-quantitative FFQ designed to assess dietary intakes of 18-month-old toddlers in a multi-ethnic Asian cohort.DesignAn FFQ of ninety-four food items, identified based on food records of 12-month-old GUSTO children, the Southampton Women's Survey 12 Month Infancy Questionnaire and inputs from paediatric dietitians, was filled out two weeks before the 18th-month clinic visit. As the reference method, two non-consecutive 24 h recalls (24HR) were administered during and two weeks after the clinic visit. FFQ nutrient intakes were validated against averaged 24HR nutrient intakes, using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Spearman's rank-order correlation, cross-classification and the Bland-Altman method.SettingData from the Singapore Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) mother-offspring birth cohort.ParticipantsToddlers (n 188) aged 18 months.ResultsAbsolute nutrient intakes from the FFQ were significantly higher than from the 24HR, except for vitamin A. After energy adjustments, r range was 0·56-0·78 (macronutrients) and 0·40-0·54 (micronutrients). De-attenuation increased r to 0·58-0·96 and 0·45-0·65 for macro- A nd micronutrients, respectively. Of participants, ?82·4 % (macronutrients) and ?77·7 % (micronutrients) were classified in the same and adjacent quartiles. No clear systematic increase in intake differences with increasing mean intake was observed in Bland-Altman plots.ConclusionsThis FFQ can provide a satisfactory assessment of toddlers' energy-adjusted nutrient intakes, as well as accurately rank them in a group. Copyright © The Authors 2019.
Source Title: Public Health Nutrition
ISSN: 13689800
DOI: 10.1017/S1368980019000557
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