Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Title: Nutrients or nursing? Understanding how breast milk feeding affects child cognition
Authors: Pang W.W. 
Tan P.T. 
Cai S. 
Fok D.
Chua M.C.
Lim S.B.
Shek L.P. 
Chan S.-Y. 
Tan K.H.
Yap F.
Gluckman P.D.
Godfrey K.M.
Meaney M.J.
Broekman B.F.P.
Kramer M.S. 
Chong Y.-S. 
Rifkin-Graboi A.
Keywords: Breast milk expression
Child cognition
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Dr. Dietrich Steinkopff Verlag GmbH and Co. KG
Citation: Pang W.W., Tan P.T., Cai S., Fok D., Chua M.C., Lim S.B., Shek L.P., Chan S.-Y., Tan K.H., Yap F., Gluckman P.D., Godfrey K.M., Meaney M.J., Broekman B.F.P., Kramer M.S., Chong Y.-S., Rifkin-Graboi A. (2019). Nutrients or nursing? Understanding how breast milk feeding affects child cognition. European Journal of Nutrition. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Purpose: To explore the associations between type of milk feeding (the “nutrients”) and mode of breast milk feeding (the “nursing”) with child cognition. Methods: Healthy children from the GUSTO (Growing Up in Singapore Toward healthy Outcomes) cohort participated in repeated neurodevelopmental assessments between 6 and 54 months. For “nutrients”, we compared children exclusively bottle-fed according to type of milk received: formula only (n = 296) vs some/all breast milk (n = 73). For “nursing”, we included only children who were fully fed breast milk, comparing those fed directly at the breast (n = 59) vs those fed partially/completely by bottle (n = 63). Results: Compared to infants fed formula only, those who were bottle-fed breast milk demonstrated significantly better cognitive performance on both the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Third Edition) at 2 years [adjusted mean difference (95% CI) 1.36 (0.32, 2.40)], and on the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (Second Edition) at 4.5 years [7.59 (1.20, 13.99)]. Children bottle-fed breast milk also demonstrated better gross motor skills at 2 years than those fed formula [1.60 (0.09, 3.10)]. Among infants fully fed breast milk, those fed directly at the breast scored higher on several memory tasks compared to children bottle-fed breast milk, including the deferred imitation task at 6 months [0.67 (0.02, 1.32)] and relational binding tasks at 6 [0.41 (0.07, 0.74)], 41 [0.67 (0.04, 1.29)] and 54 [0.12 (0.01, 0.22)] months. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that nutrients in breast milk may improve general child cognition, while nursing infants directly at the breast may influence memory. © 2019, The Author(s).
Source Title: European Journal of Nutrition
ISSN: 14366207
DOI: 10.1007/s00394-019-01929-2
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

Show full item record
Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormatAccess SettingsVersion 
(206) Nutrients or nursing Understanding how breast milk feeding affects child cognition.pdf149.05 kBAdobe PDF



Page view(s)

checked on Jul 11, 2019

Google ScholarTM



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.