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Title: Systemic levels of cytokines and GAD-specific autoantibodies isotypes in Chinese IDDM patients
Authors: Ng, W.Y. 
Thai, A.C.
Lui, K.F.
Yeo, P.P.B. 
Cheah, J.S. 
Keywords: Cytokines
GADab-IgG subclass
Issue Date: Feb-1999
Citation: Ng, W.Y., Thai, A.C., Lui, K.F., Yeo, P.P.B., Cheah, J.S. (1999-02). Systemic levels of cytokines and GAD-specific autoantibodies isotypes in Chinese IDDM patients. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 43 (2) : 127-135. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: It is not clear if a Th1/Th2 imbalance in Type 1 diabetes (insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM) would lead to a particular antigen- specific IgG subclass dominant as had been shown in the mouse model. In new, onset Type 1 diabetics, an autoantibody response to glutamate decarboxylase (GADab) is frequently observed but the GADab subclass repertoire is not well- established. We determined the systemic levels of representative Th1 and Th2 cytokines and the GADab IgG subclass distribution in 41 Chinese IDDM patients of whom 26 were recently diagnosed (≤ 1 year) and 32 had GADab, to ascertain a likely association of antigen-specific antibody isotype and the Th1/Th2 dichotomy. With high-sensitivity ELISA systems that measure sub-picogram cytokine concentrations; 26 of the 41 patients (63.4%) had at least one of the pro-inflammatory Th1 cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-12) detected. Fewer patients (4/41) had the anti-inflammatory Th2 cytokine IL-4 detected. For IL- 10, all subjects had measurable quantities but only three diabetics had levels above the upper limit for healthy subjects (n = 20). Grouped according to the profile of detectable cytokines, there were 24 Th1, 2 Th2 and 2 Th0 patterns. GAD-specific IgG1 antibody was more frequently expressed; 22 of 32 GADab[+] patients. The rank order for the GADab subclasses was IgG1 > 4 > 3 > 2; IgG2 was found in 11 GADab[+] patients. Recent-onset diabetics have a similar ranking of the GAD-specific IgG subclasses. In human Type 1 diabetes, a predominance of GAD-specific IgG1 antibody response is observed together with a dominant Th1 cytokine pattern.
Source Title: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
ISSN: 01688227
DOI: 10.1016/S0168-8227(98)00130-2
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