Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602027
Title: Potential sources of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in the Chinese diet: Results from a 24-h dietary recall study in Singapore
Authors: Koh, W.-P. 
Yang, H.N.
Yang, H.Q.
Low, S.-H.
Seow, A. 
Keywords: 24-h recall
Cancer risk
Dietary intake
Heterocyclic amines
Meat
Issue Date: Jan-2005
Citation: Koh, W.-P., Yang, H.N., Yang, H.Q., Low, S.-H., Seow, A. (2005-01). Potential sources of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in the Chinese diet: Results from a 24-h dietary recall study in Singapore. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59 (1) : 16-23. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602027
Abstract: Objective: Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) from high-temperature cooking of meat have been linked to increased cancer incidence in Western populations, but data on the sources of HCAs in Asian diets are scarce. Our aim was to identify potential sources of HCAs in the Chinese diet, and to provide the basis for efforts to quantify dietary exposure to these compounds. Design and setting: We conducted 24-h dietary recall interviews among 986 Chinese men and women in Singapore, who were a randomly selected subpopulation of participants from the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a population-based cohort. Details of all foods and beverages consumed by each subject in the past 24 h were recorded, and information on meat type, cooking method and portion size were abstracted from all meat-containing dishes, and gram weight equivalents computed. Results: The mean meat intake per person was 103.0g/day (standard deviation 74.2), of which 97.2% was fresh meat. Fish (38.0%), pork (30.6%), and poultry (21.0%) accounted for 89.6% of meat consumed. Patterns of meat consumption and cooking methods differed markedly from Western populations. Documented high-temperature cooking methods, combined with stir-frying, accounted for 44.3% of fish, 35.1% of pork and 25.6% of poultry consumed. Specifically, potentially significant sources of HCAs were pan-fried fish and barbecued pork. Conclusions: Our results identify the potential sources of HCA in the Chinese diet, highlight aspects which are relevant to HCA formation and intake, and call for novel approaches to estimating individual exposure to dietary HCAs in this and similar population. © 2005 Nature Publishing Group All rights reserved.
Source Title: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
URI: http://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/113595
ISSN: 09543007
DOI: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602027
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