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Title: Identification of a Plant Viral RNA Genome in the Nucleus
Authors: Gao, R.
Liu, P.
Wong, S.-M. 
Issue Date: 14-Nov-2012
Citation: Gao, R., Liu, P., Wong, S.-M. (2012-11-14). Identification of a Plant Viral RNA Genome in the Nucleus. PLoS ONE 7 (11) : -. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Viruses contain either DNA or RNA as genomes. DNA viruses replicate within nucleus, while most RNA viruses, especially (+)-sense single-stranded RNA, replicate and are present within cytoplasm. We proposed a new thought that is contrary to the common notion that (+)-sense single-stranded RNA viruses are present only in the cytoplasm. In this study, we question whether the genome of a plant RNA virus (non-retroviral) is present in the nucleus of infected cells? Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) RNA was detected in the nucleus of infected cells, as shown by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Western blot using anti-histone 3 and anti-phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase showed that nuclei were highly purified from mock and HCRSV-infected kenaf (Hibiscus cannabilis L.) leaves, respectively. The p23 and HCRSV coat protein (CP) coding regions were both amplified from total RNA extracted from isolated nuclei. Viral RNA in the nucleus may be used to generate viral microRNAs (vir-miRNAs), as five putative vir-miRNAs were predicted from HCRSV using the vir-miRNAs prediction database. The vir-miRNA (hcrsv-miR-H1-5p) was detected using TaqMan® stem-loop real-time PCR, and by northern blot using DIG-end labeled probe in HCRSV-infected kenaf leaves. Finally, a novel nuclear localization signal (NLS) was discovered in p23 of HCRSV. The NLS interacts with importin α and facilitates viral RNA genome to enter nucleus. We demonstrate the presence of a (+)-sense single-stranded viral RNA within nucleus. © 2012 Gao et al.
Source Title: PLoS ONE
ISSN: 19326203
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048736
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