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dc.titleTin oxides with hollandite structure as anodes for lithium ion batteries
dc.contributor.authorSharma, N.
dc.contributor.authorPlévert, J.
dc.contributor.authorSubba Rao, G.V.
dc.contributor.authorChowdari, B.V.R.
dc.contributor.authorWhite, T.J.
dc.identifier.citationSharma, N., Plévert, J., Subba Rao, G.V., Chowdari, B.V.R., White, T.J. (2005-09-06). Tin oxides with hollandite structure as anodes for lithium ion batteries. Chemistry of Materials 17 (18) : 4700-4710. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
dc.description.abstractTin oxides, K2(M,Sn)8O16 (M = Li, Mg, Fe, or Mn), possessing the hollandite crystal structure have been synthesized and characterized by a variety of techniques, and their electrochemical behavior was studied. The compounds K2(Li2/3Sn22/3)O 16 (K-Li), K2(Mn2Sn6)O16 (K-Mn), and K2(Fe2Sn6)O16 (K-Fe) are new phases. Rietveld refinement of the powder X-ray diffraction data showed that these Sn-hollandites exhibit a simple tetragonal structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on (K-Li) and (K-Mg) confirm formal valencies of the ions in the compounds. Galvanostatic cycling versus Li metal in the voltage range of 0.005-1.0 V at the current density of 60 mA/g showed the first cycle charge capacities of 602, 505, 481, and 418 (± 3) mAh/g for (K-Li), (K-Mg), (K-Fe), and (K-Mn), respectively. These values correspond to 3.7-3.0 mol of recyclable Li/mol of Sn. At the end of 50 cycles, (K-Li) and (K-Fe) performed better and retained 78 and 83% of the initial capacity. The (K-Li) also showed good rate capability. The Coulombic efficiency was >98% between 10 and 50 cycles in all cases except (K-Mn) with the average charge and discharge voltages of 0.4-0.5 and 0.25-0.3 V, respectively. Cyclic voltammograms complement the galvanostatic results. Impedance spectral data on the (K-Li) versus Li at different voltages during the 1st and 15th discharge-charge cycle have been analyzed and interpreted. © 2005 American Chemical Society.
dc.description.sourcetitleChemistry of Materials
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