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Title: Engineering three-dimensional constructs of the periodontal ligament in hyaluronan-gelatin hydrogel films and a mechanically active environment
Authors: Saminathan, A.
Vinoth, K.J. 
Low, H.H.
Cao, T. 
Meikle, M.C. 
Keywords: Growth factors
In vitro model
Matrix metalloproteinase
Periodontal ligament
real-time RT-PCR
Issue Date: Dec-2013
Citation: Saminathan, A., Vinoth, K.J., Low, H.H., Cao, T., Meikle, M.C. (2013-12). Engineering three-dimensional constructs of the periodontal ligament in hyaluronan-gelatin hydrogel films and a mechanically active environment. Journal of Periodontal Research 48 (6) : 790-801. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Background and Objective: Periodontal ligament (PDL) cells in stationary two-dimensional culture systems are in a double default state. Our aim therefore was to engineer and characterize three-dimensional constructs, by seeding PDL cells into hyaluronan-gelatin hydrogel films (80-100 μm) in a format capable of being mechanically deformed. Material and Methods: Human PDL constructs were cultured with and without connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 in (i) stationary cultures, and (ii) mechanically active cultures subjected to cyclic strains of 12% at 0.2 Hz each min, 6 h/d, in a Flexercell FX-4000 Strain Unit. The following parameters were measured: cell number and viability by laser scanning confocal microscopy; cell proliferation with the MTS assay; the expression of a panel of 18 genes using real-time RT-PCR; matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 1-3, TIMP-1, CTGF and FGF-2 protein levels in supernatants from mechanically activated cultures with Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Constructs from stationary cultures were also examined by scanning electron microscopy and immunostained for actin and vinculin. Results: Although initially randomly distributed, the cells became organized into a bilayer by day 7; apoptotic cells remained constant at approximately 5% of the total. CTGF/FGF-2 stimulated cell proliferation in stationary cultures, but relative quantity values suggested modest effects on gene expression. Two transcription factors (RUNX2 and PPARG), two collagens (COL1A1, COL3A1), four MMPs (MMP-1-3, TIMP-1), TGFB1, RANKL, OPG and P4HB were detected by gel electrophoresis and Ct values < 35. In mechanically active cultures, with the exception of P4HB, TGFB1 and RANKL, each was upregulated at some point in the time scale, as was the synthesis of MMPs and TIMP-1. SOX9, MYOD, SP7, BMP2, BGLAP or COL2A1 were not detected in either stationary or mechanically active cultures. Conclusion: Three-dimensional tissue constructs provide additional complexity to monolayer culture systems, and suggest some of the assumptions regarding cell growth, differentiation and matrix turnover based on two-dimensional cultures may not apply to cells in three-dimensional matrices. Primarily developed as a transitional in vitro model for studying cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions in tooth support, the system is also suitable for investigating the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases, and importantly from the clinical point of view, in a mechanically active environment. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Source Title: Journal of Periodontal Research
ISSN: 00223484
DOI: 10.1111/jre.12072
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

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