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Title: Energy-neutral scheduling and forwarding in environmentally-powered wireless sensor networks
Authors: Valera, A.C.
Soh, W.-S. 
Tan, H.-P.
Keywords: Dynamic duty cycling
Dynamic wakeup scheduling
Sleep latency
Wireless sensor network
Issue Date: May-2013
Citation: Valera, A.C., Soh, W.-S., Tan, H.-P. (2013-05). Energy-neutral scheduling and forwarding in environmentally-powered wireless sensor networks. Ad Hoc Networks 11 (3) : 1202-1220. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: In environmentally-powered wireless sensor networks (EPWSNs), low latency wakeup scheduling and packet forwarding is challenging due to dynamic duty cycling, posing time-varying sleep latencies and necessitating the use of dynamic wakeup schedules. We show that the variance of the intervals between receiving wakeup slots affects the expected sleep latency: when the variance of the intervals is low (high), the expected latency is low (high). We therefore propose a novel scheduling scheme that uses the bit-reversal permutation sequence (BRPS)-a finite integer sequence that positions receiving wakeup slots as evenly as possible to reduce the expected sleep latency. At the same time, the sequence serves as a compact representation of wakeup schedules thereby reducing storage and communication overhead. But while low latency wakeup schedule can reduce per-hop delay in ideal conditions, it does not necessarily lead to low latency end-to-end paths because wireless link quality also plays a significant role in the performance of packet forwarding. We therefore formulate expected transmission delay (ETD), a metric that simultaneously considers sleep latency and wireless link quality. We show that the metric is left-monotonic and left-isotonic, proving that its use in distributed algorithms such as the distributed Bellman-Ford yields consistent, loop-free and optimal paths. We perform extensive simulations using real-world energy harvesting traces to evaluate the performance of the scheduling and forwarding scheme. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Source Title: Ad Hoc Networks
ISSN: 15708705
DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2013.01.005
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