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Title: Effectiveness of pandemic H1N1-2009 vaccination in reducing laboratory confirmed influenza infections among military recruits in tropical Singapore
Authors: Lee, V.J. 
Tan, C.H.
Yap, J.
Cook, A.R. 
Ting, P.-J.
Loh, J.-P.
Gao, Q.
Chen, M.I. 
Kang, W.L.
Tan, B.H.
Tambyah, P.A.
Issue Date: 2011
Citation: Lee, V.J., Tan, C.H., Yap, J., Cook, A.R., Ting, P.-J., Loh, J.-P., Gao, Q., Chen, M.I., Kang, W.L., Tan, B.H., Tambyah, P.A. (2011). Effectiveness of pandemic H1N1-2009 vaccination in reducing laboratory confirmed influenza infections among military recruits in tropical Singapore. PLoS ONE 6 (10) : -. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Background: Limited information is available about pandemic H1N1-2009 influenza vaccine effectiveness in tropical communities. We studied the effectiveness of a pandemic H1N1 vaccination program in reducing influenza cases in Singapore. Methods: A surveillance study was conducted among military personnel presenting with febrile respiratory illness from mid-2009 to mid-2010. Consenting individuals underwent nasal washes, which were tested with RT-PCR and subtyped. A vaccination program (inactivated monovalent Panvax H1N1-2009 vaccine) was carried out among recruits. A Bayesian hierarchical model was used to quantify relative risks in the pre- and post-vaccination periods. An autoregressive generalised linear model (GLM) was developed to minimise confounding. Results: Of 2858 participants, 437(15.3%), 60(2.1%), and 273(9.6%) had pandemic H1N1, H3N2, and influenza B. The ratio of relative risks for pandemic H1N1 infection before and after vaccination for the recruit camp relative to other camps was 0.14(0.016,0.49); for H3N2, 0.44(0.035,1.8); and for influenza B, 18(0.77,89). Using the GLM for the recruit camp, post-vaccination weekly cases decreased by 54%(37%,67%, p<0.001) from that expected without vaccination; influenza B increased by 66 times(9-479 times, p<0.001); with no statistical difference for H3N2 (p = 0.54). Conclusions: Pandemic vaccination reduced H1N1-2009 disease burden among military recruits. Routine seasonal influenza vaccination should be considered. © 2011 Lee et al.
Source Title: PLoS ONE
ISSN: 19326203
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026572
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