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dc.titleReview of Singapore's air quality and greenhouse gas emissions: Current situation and opportunities
dc.contributor.authorVelasco, E.
dc.contributor.authorRoth, M.
dc.identifier.citationVelasco, E., Roth, M. (2012-06). Review of Singapore's air quality and greenhouse gas emissions: Current situation and opportunities. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association 62 (6) : 625-641. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
dc.description.abstractSingapore has many environmental accomplishments to its credit. Accessible data on air quality indicates that all criteria pollutants satisfy both U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and World Health Organization (WHO) air quality standards and guidelines, respectively. The exception is PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm), which is not currently considered a criteria pollutant in Singapore but may potentially be the major local air pollution problem and cause for health concern. Levels of other airborne pollutants as well as their physical and chemical processes associated with local formation, transformation, dispersion, and deposition are not known. According to available emission inventories, Singapore's contribution to the total atmospheric pollution and carbon budget at the regional and global scales is small. Emissions per unit gross domestic product (GDP) are low compared with other countries, although Singapore's per-capita GDP and per-capita emissions are among the highest in the world. Some information is available on health effects, but the impacts on the ecosystem and the complex interactions of air pollution and climate change at a regional level are also unknown. This article reviews existing available information on atmospheric pollution and greenhouse gas emissions and proposes a multipollutant approach to greenhouse gas mitigation and local air quality. Singapore, by reducing its per-capita emissions, increasing the availability of information (e.g., through regularly publishing hourly and/or daily PM2.5 concentrations) and developing a research agenda in this area, would likely be seen to be a model of a high-density, livable, and sustainable city in Southeast Asia and other tropical regions worldwide. Singapore is widely recognized for its environmental achievements and often cited as a model of a high-density, livable, and sustainable city. This article reviews available information with the aim to provide a reference for future scientific research of strategic relevance for Singapore's air quality and greenhouse gas mitigation management under a multipollutant framework. However, the limited publicly accessible data and little scientific information prevent a comprehensive assessment of the local air quality and greenhouse gas emissions. Singapore's dynamic economy and strong profile in advanced science and technological innovation have the potential to enhance the research agenda in this area, which is not yet well developed in tropical cities. © Copyright 2012 A&WMA.
dc.description.sourcetitleJournal of the Air and Waste Management Association
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