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Title: Evidence of autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase in oral fluid of type 1 diabetic patients
Authors: Todd, A.L.
Ng, W.-Y. 
Thai, A.C. 
Lee, Y.S. 
Loke, K.Y. 
Keywords: Gingival crevicular fluid
Immunoglobulin G
Mouth mucosa
Radio-immunoprecipitation assay
Issue Date: 2002
Citation: Todd, A.L., Ng, W.-Y., Thai, A.C., Lee, Y.S., Loke, K.Y. (2002). Evidence of autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase in oral fluid of type 1 diabetic patients. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 57 (3) : 171-177. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Circulating antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADab) are a major indicator for autoimmune destruction of pancreatic islet cells (type 1 diabetes). Previously reported detection of GADab in oral fluid, however, was assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with low diagnostic sensitivity and high non-specific binding. We re-assessed oral fluid GADab detection using a different sampling technique and a more robust assay. Type 1 diabetic subjects (n=32; mean age±SD: 13.9±3.7 years) provided Orasure® oral fluid and venous blood samples. Orasure® collections were assayed for total immunoglobulin G (IgG), then concentrated to 1/10 of their volume using mini-centrifugal protein concentrators. All samples were assayed by a GAD65 antibody radio-immunoprecipitation method. Oral fluid antibodies were detected (>99th percentile of radio-binding (%counts per min (%cpm)) for seronegatives) in 10/16 seropositive subjects, with %cpm (median: 6.4%; range: 4.6-25.8) significantly greater (P<0.001) than for seronegatives (median: 4.7%; range: 3.4-5.7). A highly significant correlation (Spearman's rho: 0.85; P<0.001) was demonstrated between %cpm of concentrates and respective serum titres for seropositive diabetics. Median IgG concentration of Orasure® collections was 22.8 mg/l (range: 9.4-168.0). GADab recovery from Orasure® collectors was estimated at 90%. This is the first confirmatory detection of diabetes-specific autoimmune markers in oral fluid. Acceptable correlation between concentrated oral fluid radio-binding and serum titre was achieved. Improved antibody recovery and assay re-optimisation could provide a basis for more extensive studies that may lead to an alternative non-invasive screening method for pre-clinical autoimmune diabetes. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Source Title: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
ISSN: 01688227
DOI: 10.1016/S0168-8227(02)00059-1
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

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