Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/223667
Title: INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS EGRESS DESIGN FACTORS ON IMPROVING EVACUATION EFFICIENCY IN A COMMERCIAL OFFICE BUILDING (A CASE STUDY OF EIGHTRIUM)
Authors: TAY HUI LING JOANNE
Keywords: Building
PFM
Project and Facilities Management
Chew Yit Lin Michael
2016/2017 PFM
Commercial Building
Corridor Width
Door Width
Egress Design Factors
Evacuation Efficiency
Pathfinder
Simulation Model
Staircase Width
Issue Date: 6-Jun-2017
Citation: TAY HUI LING JOANNE (2017-06-06). INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS EGRESS DESIGN FACTORS ON IMPROVING EVACUATION EFFICIENCY IN A COMMERCIAL OFFICE BUILDING (A CASE STUDY OF EIGHTRIUM). ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: An effective building evacuation system goes beyond meeting the minimum requirements of the fire code and engineering guidelines. Building an effective system includes understanding the nature of individual egress systems as well as how all the egress systems interact with one another in a building to improve evacuation efficiency. Often, simulation models in existing studies are not designed to show interactivity amongst the different forms of egress systems in a larger building setting and findings obtained are not evacuation time specifically. Therefore, this research aims to develop an evacuation simulation model comprising a level of a particular commercial building as a case study to analyze the variables influencing evacuation time. Most importantly, the results obtained from the simulation study would be outlined in the form of a decision matrix model, to be introduced into the industry. Despite Performance-Based (PB) guidelines and minimum requirements in the fire code, there are currently no specific guidelines and decision models to guide the effective prioritization of the design of egress systems influencing evacuation efficiency. Therefore, the introduction and incorporation of this decision matrix model during the conceptual design phase would fill the existing industrial gap. In addition, other recommendations proposed for the facility managers are outlined based on human behavioral characteristics and satisfaction of basic building functionality. The above recommendations should also be constantly reviewed in tandem with the decision matrix model so as to enhance the evacuation effectiveness of the egress systems. The objective is for the architects to able to assess the level of fire safety adequacy even before the building is fully built and for the facility managers to satisfy the fire safety goals envisioned by the architects. The study would be accomplished through conducting in-depth research, analyzing literature reviews, interviews, case studies and developing of the simulation model. The results obtained from the pathfinder software shows that as the staircase width increases by 300mm and 600mm, the evacuation time improved significantly by 25.152% and 10.240% respectively. This is due to the staggered arrangement being facilitated in the stairs and the optimal capacity of the fire door, which allowed for an appropriate density of people in front of the staircases (without bottlenecks). Further increase in staircase widths led to an increase in evacuation time due to the introduction of other limiting factors such as the narrow fire exit door and congested corridor. Next, there is a constant improvement in evacuation from 0.232% to 4.094% as the corridor width increases throughout by intervals of 300mm. This is due to a decrease in overall density of the corridor span. This results in a higher unobstructed speed amongst the evacuees and an increase in flow rate through the corridors. Lastly, door width shows an absence in relationship with evacuation efficiency since other factors such as the flow rate of evacuees at corridors and staircases statistically affect capacity of doors, in turn affecting evacuation efficiency. When varying widths of the same extent with respect to ‘n persons’ allowance, varying the width of staircases brought about the greatest improvement in evacuation time at an average of 30.23%, followed by the corridors at 5.45% and lastly, doors at 1.53%. In conclusion, the findings provide a comprehensive study for architects and facility managers to use during the conceptual planning, operational and maintenance phases.
URI: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/223667
Appears in Collections:Bachelor's Theses

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