Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/220692
Title: PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT: ASSESSMENT OF THE FACTORS, SOURCES & SITUATION
Authors: MAASI CHANDRASEKAR
Keywords: Environmental Management
MEM
Master (Environmental Management)
2017/2018 EnvM
Pranav S. Joshi
Issue Date: 20-Mar-2019
Citation: MAASI CHANDRASEKAR (2019-03-20). PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT: ASSESSMENT OF THE FACTORS, SOURCES & SITUATION. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: PPCPs (Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products) represent contaminants of emerging concern, whose unintentional presence in the environment has been the focus of worldwide attention in the past three decades. In 2008, the Associated Press had reported that a vast array of pharmaceuticals including antibiotics and sex hormones were found in the drinking water supplies of at least 41 million Americans. Since then, various studies reported in the scientific literature have demonstrated that the PPCPs can enter the environment via different pathways, contaminate the water, and can have adverse effect on ecosystems and human health. The review and assessment presented in this dissertation critically examines this issue, considering PPCP’s unknown potential for carcinogenicity, biological activity, and promotion of antibiotic resistance in certain organisms. It identifies various factors that have an impact on the contamination of surface water, ground water and drinking water. In terms of the global situation, it has been proposed that there is a serious need for various countries to strengthen their capabilities to deal with increasing presence of PPCPs in their water systems to protect ecosystems and human health. Apart from scientific approaches and regulatory measures, many other factors should be considered such as population dynamics, etc. combined with risk communication strategies in accordance with the unique situation of water management, infrastructure, weather patterns, economic situation and lifestyle of the people that prevail in various countries at the national, regional and sub-regional levels. In the context of Singapore, there are limited data publicly available on the potential risk to human health arising from the presence of PPCPs in aquatic environments. This dissertation provides a comprehensive insight into the underlying issues, and proposes that while the risk to physical health in terms of acquiring illnesses from PPCPs in aquatic environments is currently low, there are potential sources that should be further evaluated due to their higher risk level score compared to other sources in contaminating these environments. Singapore must therefore continue to plan ahead to manage these risks, implement adequate mitigation measures, and address the knowledge gaps.
URI: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/220692
Appears in Collections:Master's Theses (Restricted)

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