Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/219591
Title: STREET-LEVEL BUREAUCRATS IN THE BARANGAY: THE FOREFRONT OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PHILIPPINES � ECOLOGICAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ACT
Authors: VERGELLE ALQUEZA PARROCHA
Keywords: MEM
Environmental Management
Master (Environmental Management)
Olivia Jensen
2016/2017 EnvM
Issue Date: 2-Aug-2017
Citation: VERGELLE ALQUEZA PARROCHA (2017-08-02). STREET-LEVEL BUREAUCRATS IN THE BARANGAY: THE FOREFRONT OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PHILIPPINES � ECOLOGICAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ACT. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Impacts of solid waste is a concern within the ‘brown’ agenda of environmental management, but it can be easily overlooked. Inevitably, consequent issues of public health and environmental protection, as well as resource value maximization and climate change have become more evident over time, and these provided strong drive for countries to create policies towards mitigation and control of solid waste problems. Countries typically formalize solid waste management at the local level where preferred management options of waste prevention, minimization, reuse and recycling could be made. As a result, local officials have to play a critical role in achieving national policy targets within the context of their community. However, faced with conflicting interests among their constituents and limited resources, in addition to demands of national policy, these ‘street-level bureaucrats’ (Lipsky 1980) are obliged to balance competing goals. This dissertation looks therefore into the issue of solid waste management as a policy implementation problem, where proper formulation of policy intentions does not necessarily translate to successes on the ground. It draws on the experiences of two barangays in Quezon City, Philippines, where a supportive national legislative framework is in place through the Republic Act No. 9003. The study is a descriptive analysis that identifies the enablers that allow some street-level bureaucrats to perform well in meeting national policy targets, and the inhibiting factors that challenge the others. Information is collected through semi-structured interviews in the barangays and the city, and content analysis of the law and its subsidiary regulations. Results show that as prerequisite to implementation, there exist gaps in resources not only financially, but also politically and socially. Financially, budget is equitable in principle but price incentive from solid waste management competition eventually tips the balance towards winners. Politically, there is the Barangay Solid Waste Management Committee as prescribed by the law, however, not all barangays use it for coalition. The absence of political power in the barangay is then complemented by that of the higher city government. Social resource, on the other hand, is lacking in one and heightened in the other, and largely compensates where financial resource is not enough. Aside from resources, street-level bureaucrats’ agency and knowledge of system become significant enablers in meeting policy targets. Agency is shown by exercise of authority, and is heightened in the presence of social organization. Knowledge of system is evidenced by consultative interactions with other higher government agencies, and in turn translates to capacity for action. In the barangay where consultative interactions are made with donor-driven agencies, activities to meet policy targets do not prove sustainable. While actions of street-level bureaucrats remain personal and dependent on their agency and knowledge of system, incentive and disincentive mechanisms may be employed to heighten them. In conclusion, a well-crafted law is necessary but it is insufficient. It is important to strengthen resources that allow street-level bureaucrats to act with capacity, and to put mechanisms that incentivize their agency. With these tools in place, laws do not remain aspirational on paper; they become attainable on the ground.
URI: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/219591
Appears in Collections:Master's Theses (Restricted)

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