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dc.titleNeurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: Clarifying concepts of diagnostic dichotomy vs. continuum
dc.contributor.authorKuswanto, C.N
dc.contributor.authorSum, M.Y
dc.contributor.authorSim, K
dc.identifier.citationKuswanto, C.N, Sum, M.Y, Sim, K (2013). Neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: Clarifying concepts of diagnostic dichotomy vs. continuum. Frontiers in Psychiatry 4 (DEC) : Article 162. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
dc.description.abstractThe Kraepelinian dichotomy posits that patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) present as two separate psychotic entities such that they differ in terms of clinical severity including neurocognitive functioning. Our study aimed to specifically compare and contrast the level of neurocognitive functioning between SCZ and BD patients and identify predictors of their poor neurocognitive functioning. We hypothesized that patients with SCZ had a similar level of neurocognitive impairment compared with BD. About 49 healthy controls (HC), 72 SCZ, and 42 BD patients who were matched for age, gender, and premorbid IQ were administered the Brief Assessment of Cognition battery (BAC). Severity of psychopathology and socio-occupational functioning were assessed for both patients groups. Both BD and SCZ groups demonstrated similar patterns of neurocognitive deficits across several domains (verbal memory, working memory, semantic fluency, processing speed) compared with HC subjects. However, no significant difference was found in neurocognitive functioning between BD and SCZ patients, suggesting that both patient groups suffer the same degree of neurocognitive impairment. Patients with lower level of psychosocial functioning [F(1,112) = 2.661, p = 0.009] and older age [F(1,112) = -2.625, p = 0.010], not diagnosis or doses of psychotropic medications, predicted poorer overall neurocognitive functioning as measured by the lower BAC composite score. Our findings of comparable neurocognitive impairments between SCZ and BD affirm our hypothesis and support less the Kraepelinian concept of dichotomy but more of a continuum of psychotic spectrum conditions. This should urge clinicians to investigate further the underlying neural basis of these neurocognitive deficits, and be attentive to the associated socio-demographic and clinical profile in order to recognize and optimize early the management of the widespread neurocognitive deficits in patients with SCZ and BD. © 2013 Kuswanto, Sum and Sim.
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 International
dc.sourceUnpaywall 20201031
dc.subjectbipolar disorder
dc.subjectBrief Assessment of Cognition battery
dc.subjectcognitive defect
dc.subjectcontrolled study
dc.subjectcross-sectional study
dc.subjectdisease duration
dc.subjectdisease severity
dc.subjectgenetic association
dc.subjectGlobal Assessment of Functioning
dc.subjectintelligence quotient
dc.subjectmajor clinical study
dc.subjectneurocognitive functioning
dc.subjectPositive and Negative Syndrome Scale
dc.subjectright handedness
dc.subjectsemantic memory
dc.subjectsocial psychology
dc.subjecttask performance
dc.subjectverbal memory
dc.subjectworking memory
dc.subjectYoung Mania Rating Scale
dc.contributor.departmentPSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE
dc.description.sourcetitleFrontiers in Psychiatry
dc.description.pageArticle 162
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