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Title: Behind the facial twitch: Depressive symptoms in hemifacial spasm
Authors: Tan E.-K. 
Lum S.-Y.
Fook-Chong S. 
Chan L.-L. 
Gabriel C.
Lim L. 
Keywords: Becks depression inventory
Hemifacial spasm
Issue Date: 2005
Citation: Tan E.-K., Lum S.-Y., Fook-Chong S., Chan L.-L., Gabriel C., Lim L. (2005). Behind the facial twitch: Depressive symptoms in hemifacial spasm. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders 11 (4) : 241-245. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Background: Depression impairs psychosocial and occupational functioning and contributes to significant morbidity and mortality. Hemifacial spasm (HFS) causes social embarrassment and visual and verbal disability. Objective: We examined; (1) the prevalence and predictive factors of depressive symptoms (Becks Depression Inventory (BDI) and clinical assessment) in HFS and (2) the sensitivity and specificity of BDI as a screening and diagnostic tool in HFS. Methods: A large cohort of HFS patients in a movement disorders clinic was clinically evaluated and the BDI self-administered by patients. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were undertaken to investigate the effect of age, gender, body-mass index, duration and severity of HFS on the outcome of BDI score. ROC (receiver operating characteristics) analysis was utilized to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity and discriminative property of the scale. Results: There were 90 HFS patients with a mean age of 54.4+11.1 (35-79) years, comprising of 58.9% women and with a mean severity HFS score of 2.9+0.8 (range 1-4) The mean BDI score was higher in depressed HFS than in non-depressed HFS (19.7+6.7 vs 4.2+4.9, p<0.0001). Female gender and a younger age were risk factors (p=0.07). In the multivariate analysis, the severity of HFS was an independent predictor of BDI scores (p<0.0001). The AUC was 97.1% suggesting excellent discriminative property of BDI. For cut-off score of 12/13, the sensitivity was 93.3%, specificity 94.7%, Positive Predictive Value 77.8% and Negative Predictive Value 98.6%. Conclusions: The prevalence of depressive disorder in HFS was 16.7%, with younger women at greater risk. The severity of HFS was positively correlated with the severity of depressive symptoms. The BDI can be a complimentary screening and/or diagnostic instrument for depressive disorder in HFS. Early diagnosis of at-risk patients will prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Source Title: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders
ISSN: 13538020
DOI: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2004.12.003
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