Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJMF-10-2013-0108
Title: Real estate market cyclical dynamics: The prime office sectors of Kuala Lumpur, Singapore and Hong Kong
Authors: Ho, K.H.D. 
Addae-Dapaah, K.
Keywords: Hong Kong
Kuala Lumpur
Prime office sectors
Real estate market cyclical dynamics
Singapore
Issue Date: 2014
Citation: Ho, K.H.D., Addae-Dapaah, K. (2014). Real estate market cyclical dynamics: The prime office sectors of Kuala Lumpur, Singapore and Hong Kong. International Journal of Managerial Finance 10 (2) : 241-262. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJMF-10-2013-0108
Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to help us understand the real estate cycle and offers an analysis using a vector auto regression (VAR) model. The authors study the key international cities of Hong Kong, Kuala Lumpur and Singapore. The authors find four key outcomes. One, the real estate cycle is generally different from the underlying business cycle in local markets for the cities studies. Two, the real estate cycle is more exaggerated in the construction and development areas than in rents and vacancies. Three, the vacancy cycle tends to lead the rental cycle. And four, new construction completions tend to peak when vacancy is also peaking. The authors believe that future research should try to help understand the linkages that drive these outcomes. For example, are rigidities in the local permit and construction markets responsible for the link between construction peaks and vacancy peaks? Design/methodology/approach: Real estate market cyclical dynamics and its estimation via VAR model offers an insightful set of practical and empirical models. It affirms a comprehensive theoretical underpinning for analysing the prime office and residential sectors of the capitol cities of Kuala Lumpur, Singapore and Hong Kong in the fast developing Asia region. Its unrestricted form also provides an effective and insightful way of modelling real estate market cyclical dynamics utilising only real estate market indicators, furnished by real estate market data providers. Findings: The office rental VAR model for Singapore (SOR), KL (KOR) and HK (HOR) show good fits. In the HOR model, rents and vacancies are negatively signed and significant for certain lagged relationships with other variables and with rents themselves. The office CV VAR model for Singapore (SOCV), KL (KOCV) and HK (HOCV) show good fits. In the HOCV model, capital values (CVs) and initial yields are negatively signed and significant for certain lagged relationships with other variables and with CVs themselves. Impulse response functions specified for seven years to mirror a medium-term real estate market cycle "die out" to zero for the stationary VAR models that are estimated for the endogenous variables. The accumulated responses asymptote to some non-zero constant. Practical implications: The VAR model offers a complete and meaningful dynamic system of solely real estate variables for international real estate investors and policy makers in decision making. Its unrestricted form offers an effective and insightful way of modelling real estate market cyclical dynamics utilising only real estate market indicators, which can be reliably provided by a dedicated real estate information and consultancy provider of international standing. Originality/value: The theoretical model offers a complete dynamic model system of the real estate space market, comprising a unique system of six linked equations that denote the relationship among supply, demand, construction, vacancy and rent over time, inclusive of price response slopes and lags. The VAR model enables the investigation of the effect of the lagged values of all the variables concerned. It also enables the explicit and rigorous quantitative forecasts of say rents and CVs when the rest of the variable can be forecasted beforehand. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Source Title: International Journal of Managerial Finance
URI: http://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/113961
ISSN: 17439132
DOI: 10.1108/IJMF-10-2013-0108
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