Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2009.03.045
Title: Enhancement of proton beam writing in PMMA through optimization of the development procedure
Authors: Bolhuis, S.
van Kan, J.A. 
Watt, F. 
Keywords: Acoustic agitation
Development
Proton beam writing
Issue Date: 15-Jun-2009
Citation: Bolhuis, S., van Kan, J.A., Watt, F. (2009-06-15). Enhancement of proton beam writing in PMMA through optimization of the development procedure. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 267 (12-13) : 2302-2305. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2009.03.045
Abstract: The development step of the proton beam writing (PBW) process plays an important role in the performance characteristics that can be achieved with a resist-developer system. A common developer for PBW in PMMA resist is the mixture IPA/water, used in combination with conventional dip development. In this paper, we investigate the use of the GG-developer, much used in the LIGA-process, and show that the GG-developer is able to dip develop proton beam written structures of feature sizes down to 133 nm in a PMMA layer of 2.4 μm thickness. Moreover, both contrast and sensitivity are found to be higher for the GG-developer compared to dip development in 7:3 IPA/water. The development method as well as the type of developer influences resist development. The effect of megasonic agitation (frequency of 1 MHz) on the development of structures in PMMA was investigated for the developer 7:3 IPA/water. Compared to conventional dip development, structures developed with megasonic agitation showed larger feature sizes, indicating that the development rate was increased. However, performance characteristics were not enhanced: both contrast and sensitivity were found to be lower than after dip development in 7:3 IPA/water. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Source Title: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms
URI: http://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/96475
ISSN: 0168583X
DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2009.03.045
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