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|Title:||Homolytic dissociation of the vulcanization accelerator tetramethylthiuram disulfide (TMTD) and structures and stabilities of the related radicals Me 2NCSn • (n = 1-4)|
|Citation:||Steudel, R., Steudel, Y., Mak, A.M., Ming, W.W. (2006-12-08). Homolytic dissociation of the vulcanization accelerator tetramethylthiuram disulfide (TMTD) and structures and stabilities of the related radicals Me 2NCSn • (n = 1-4). Journal of Organic Chemistry 71 (25) : 9302-9311. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1021/jo061345o|
|Abstract:||(Chemical Equation Presented) The homolytic dissociation of the important vulcanization accelerator tetramethylthiuram disulfide (TMTD) has been studied by ab initio calculations according to the G3X(MP2) and G3X(MP2)-RAD theories. Homolytic cleavage of the SS bond requires a low enthalpy of 150.0 kJ mol -1, whereas 268.0 kJ mol-1 is needed for the dissociation of one of the C-S single bonds. To cleave one of the SS bonds of the corresponding trisulfide (TMTT) requires 191.1 kJ mol-1. Me 2NCS2 • is a particularly stable sulfur radical as reflected in the low S-H bond dissociation enthalpy of the corresponding acid Me2NC(=S)SH (301.7 kJ mol-1). Me 2NCS2 • (2B2) is a σ radical characterized by the unpaired spin density shared equally between the two sulfur atoms and by a 4-center (NCS2) delocalized π system. The ESR g-tensors of the radicals Me2NCS n • (n = 1-3) have been calculated. Both TMTD and the mentioned radicals form stable chelate complexes with a Li+ cation, which here serves as a model for the zinc ions used in accelerated rubber vulcanization. Although the binding energy of the complex [Li(TMTD)]+ is larger than that of the isomeric species [Li(S2CNMe 2)2]+ (12), the dissociation enthalpy of TMTD as a ligand is smaller (125.5 kJ mol-1) than that of free TMTD. In other words, the homolytic dissociation of the SS bonds of TMTD is facilitated by the presence of Li+ ions. The sulfurization of TMTD in the presence of Li+ to give the paramagnetic complex [Li(S 3CNMe2)2]+ is strongly exothermic. These results suggest that TMTD reacts with naked zinc ions as well as with the surface atoms of solid zinc oxide particles in an analogous manner producing highly reactive complexes, which probably initiate the crosslinking process during vulcanization reactions of natural or synthetic rubber accelerated by TMTD/ZnO. © 2006 American Chemical Society.|
|Source Title:||Journal of Organic Chemistry|
|Appears in Collections:||Staff Publications|
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