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|Title:||Photodegradation kinetics of p-tert-octylphenol, 4-tert-octylphenoxy-acetic acid and ibuprofen under simulated solar conditions in surface water|
|Keywords:||4-Octylphenoxy-acetic acid (OP1EC)|
|Citation:||Xu, Y., Nguyen, T.V., Reinhard, M., Gin, K.Y.H. (2011-10). Photodegradation kinetics of p-tert-octylphenol, 4-tert-octylphenoxy-acetic acid and ibuprofen under simulated solar conditions in surface water. Chemosphere 85 (5) : 790-796. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.06.069|
|Abstract:||Direct and indirect (sensitized) photolysis of p-tert-octylphenol (OP), 4-octylphenoxy-acetic acid (OP1EC), and ibuprofen (IBU) were investigated in laboratory water and surface water under simulated and natural sunlight conditions. Photodegradation obeyed apparent-first order kinetics with rates increasing in the presence of NO2-, NO3-, and humic acid (HAC). The bimolecular rate constants, k″, were determined for the reactions of OP and OP1EC with hydroxyl radical ( OH) using photolyzed hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2) as the hydroxyl radical ( OH) and IBU as the reference compound. The k″ values for OP and OP1EC were (average and standard deviation) (10.9±0.5)×10 9M -1s -1 and (8.6±0.5)×10 9M -1s -1, respectively. Direct photolysis of OP is small with a quantum yield of 0.015 in the range of 285-295nm. Based on laboratory and average solar intensity data, the estimated half-life of OP in different Singapore surface waters was estimated to range from 0.6 to 2.5d. The steady state hydroxyl radical concentration ([ OH] ss) was estimated using a kinetic model that considered dissolved organic carbon compounds (DOC), nitrate, and nitrite as OH sources, and DOC, CO32- and HCO3- as scavengers. In surface waters containing DOC 2.3-6.5mgL -1, nitrate 0-3.2mgL -1, and nitrite 0-2.5mgL -1, the calculated [ OH] ss ranged from 5.2×10 -15 to 9.6×10 -15M. Half-lives calculations based on this model underestimated the measured half-life by a factor of approximately 4.2 to 1.1. DOC was predicted to be the most important sensitizer except in a sample that contained relatively high nitrate and nitrite. In the presence of NO3-, photoreactions produced nitrated OP and IBU. A mechanism for OP photolysis in the presence of nitrate is proposed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.|
|Appears in Collections:||Staff Publications|
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