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Title: LCI (Life cycle inventory) analysis of fuels and electricity generation in Singapore
Authors: Tan, R.B.H. 
Wijaya, D.
Khoo, H.H.
Keywords: Air emissions
Climate change
Energy mix
Energy security
National grid
Issue Date: Dec-2010
Citation: Tan, R.B.H., Wijaya, D., Khoo, H.H. (2010-12). LCI (Life cycle inventory) analysis of fuels and electricity generation in Singapore. Energy 35 (12) : 4910-4916. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: This article offers a unique three-stage approach in LCI analysis for generating the environmental profile of electricity generation in Singapore. The first stage focuses on fuels delivered to Singapore, next on electricity generated from various types of power production plants. The third stage integrates the entire life cycle study. The final gate-to-gate results show that the total CO2 emissions from the national grid are 455.6 kg CO2 per MWh without any loss in transmission and 467.0 kg CO2 per MWh with 2.5% losses. The results for the entire cradle-to-gate energy production are: 586.3 kg CO2 per MWh without considering any losses and 601.0 kg CO2 per MWh with 2.5% transmission loss. For the rest of the LCI, the cradle-to-gate results (per MWh) are kg 0.19 CO (carbon monoxide), 0.06 kg N2O (nitrous oxide), 1.94-1.99 kg NOx (nitrogen oxides), 2.94-3.01 kg SOx (sulphur oxides), 0.064-0.066 kg VOC (volatile organic compounds) and 0.078-0.080 kg PM (particulate matters). From gate-to-gate, the results are 0.12 kg CO, 0.0016 kg N2O, 1.42-1.46 kg NOx, 2.56-2.62 kg SOx, 0.033-0.034 kg VOC and 0.067-0.069 kg PM. Emissions of CO2 from energy generation, climate change mitigation and policies for energy security are also discussed. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Source Title: Energy
ISSN: 03605442
DOI: 10.1016/
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