Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
|Title:||Highly active, stable, and recyclable magnetic nano-size solid acid catalysts: Efficient esterification of free fatty acid in grease to produce biodiesel|
|Citation:||Zillillah, Tan, G., Li, Z. (2012-11). Highly active, stable, and recyclable magnetic nano-size solid acid catalysts: Efficient esterification of free fatty acid in grease to produce biodiesel. Green Chemistry 14 (11) : 3077-3086. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1039/c2gc35779h|
|Abstract:||Magnetic nano-size solid acid catalysts were prepared, characterized, and examined, for the first time, for the esterification of free fatty acid (FFA) to develop a green and efficient pretreatment step for producing biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester, FAME) from waste grease containing FFA. PGMA-cat 4, consisting of a core of iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), a poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) shell, and sulfonic acid groups on the surface, was synthesized in 98% yield from the corresponding core-shell structured PGMA-MNPs containing epoxy surface groups by gentle sulfonation with Na 2SO 3, possessing a mean size of 90 nm, high acid capacity of 2.3 mmol H + g -1, and excellent superparamagnetic properties. Esterification of FFA (16 wt%) in grease with methanol using this catalyst (4 wt%) gave 96% conversion of FFA to FAME within 2 h. PGMA-cat 4 was easily separated under a magnetic field and showed no loss of productivity during 10 cycles. In comparison, PS-cat 12, consisting of a core of iron oxide MNPs, a polystyrene shell, and benzenesulfonic acids on the surface, was active but possessed no recyclability; Si-cat 14, consisting of a core of iron oxide MNPs, a silica shell, and sulfonic acids as surface groups, showed lower activity and poor recycling performance. The catalytic performance of PGMA-cat 4 was also better than those of the micro-size counterpart such as PGMA-cat (m) 15 and large-size solid acid catalysts such as Amberlyst 15. Thus, a novel, active, stable, and recyclable magnetic nano-size solid acid catalyst was successfully developed for the green and efficient esterification of FFA in grease as a pretreatment step to produce biodiesel from waste grease. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.|
|Source Title:||Green Chemistry|
|Appears in Collections:||Staff Publications|
Show full item record
Files in This Item:
There are no files associated with this item.
checked on Mar 20, 2019
WEB OF SCIENCETM
checked on Mar 5, 2019
checked on Mar 23, 2019
Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.