Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1109/TED.2008.2011572
Title: Work function engineering within a single metal gate stack: Manipulating terbium- and aluminum-induced interface dipoles of opposing polarity
Authors: Lim, A.E.-J.
Kwong, D.-L.
Yeo, Y.-C. 
Keywords: Aluminum (Al)
Interface dipole
Metal gate
Terbium (Tb)
Work function engineering
Issue Date: 2009
Citation: Lim, A.E.-J., Kwong, D.-L., Yeo, Y.-C. (2009). Work function engineering within a single metal gate stack: Manipulating terbium- and aluminum-induced interface dipoles of opposing polarity. IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 56 (3) : 466-473. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1109/TED.2008.2011572
Abstract: In this paper, a systematic study on combining n-type and p-type interface dipoles for metal gate work function (Φm) engineering within the same gate stack was conducted. Ultrathin terbium (Tb) and aluminum (Al)-based interlayers (ILs) were utilized for n- and p-type dipole formation, respectively, to modulate the net interface dipole magnitude and polarity within a metal gate stack. By controlling the net interface dipole through Tb- and Al-based ILs, continuous TaN Φm tunability of ∼0.7-0.8 eV (after either a 500 °C or 950 °C anneal) on SiO2 dielectric was attained. The reversal of net interface dipole polarity was demonstrated using both TaN/SiO2 and TaN/high-κ gate stacks by varying IL metal species and anneal conditions. A convenient way in reversing a Tb-induced (n-type) dipole through Al-incorporation via the TaN metal gate using a "gate-first" process is also shown. The dominant dipole that results in the metal gate stack hinges critically on the reactions of Al and Tb with SiO2 (or underlying SiO2 for high-κ stacks) for Al-O-(Si) and Tb-O-Si bond formation, respectively. This concept of manipulating interface dipoles of opposing polarity for metal gate Φm tunability could open up new avenues for achieving multiple Φm using a single metal gate and a simple integration scheme. © 2009 IEEE.
Source Title: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
URI: http://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/83277
ISSN: 00189383
DOI: 10.1109/TED.2008.2011572
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